digital library
Eastern Han / Sanguo

a. Reference:


Chennault, Cynthia L. “An Annotated Bibliography of Western Works on Early Medieval China (1997-2001), EMC 8 (2002):99-136. Very useful, though the annotations are limited and not critical. The Web archive of articles from back issues of Early Medieval China, with some restrictions, is available at: http://www.aall.ufl.edu/EMC/

de Crespigny, Rafe. A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (223-220 AD). Leiden: Brill, 2006. A monumental (over 1300 pages) and comprehensive (upwards of 8000 entries) reference covering the Later Han.

Dr Richard Rafe Champion de Crespigny website: The curriculum vita of Dr Richard Rafe Champion de Crespigny of Australian National University, one of the most productive Western scholars working in the history of the Later Han/Three Kingdoms period. Contains a complete bibliography of his publications as well as links to on-line versions of many his publications on the Later Han and Three Kingdoms. See list of publications below. http://asianstudies.anu.edu.au/wiki/index.php/Early_Imperial_China

Early Medieval China Group. Web site of the Early Medieval China Group, whose "main goal is to increase and broaden understanding of China's "early medieval age," roughly defined as late Han into early Tang." This site contains a fairly extensive bibliography of materials in Western languages on the period, which often gives citations for reviews of listed books. There are also a list of the members of the EMCG, links to archives of back issues of the group's annual journal Early Medieval China subscription information, and a link for posting items to the EMCG discussion list, emedch-l. http://www.earlymedievalchinagroup.org/

Eonomoto, Aiyuchi. "Wei-Jin Nanbeichao Studies in Japan (1992)," EMC, 1(1995-96):118-34. The bibliographical essay offers a good, brief introduction to research and interpretative issues among Japanese scholars of Early Medieval China.

Frankel, Hans. comp. Catalogue of Translations from the Chinese Dynastic Histories for the Period 220-960. Chinese Dynastic History Translations, Supplement no. 1. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1957.

Guang Li’an 鄺利安. Wei Jin Nan Beichao shi yanjiu lunwen shumu yinde 魏晉南北朝史研究論文書目引得 [Index to Articles on the History of the Wei, Jin Northern and Southern Dynasties]. Taibei: Taiwan Zhonghua shuju, 1971. Lists 2074 titles of Chinese and Japanese articles published between 1912 and 1969.

Klein,Kenneth. "Bibliography of Western Works on Early Medieval China (1981-1993), Part I: Art, History, Language, Literature, and Pastoral Nomadic Peoples," EMC, 1(1994):150-60.

_______. "Bibliography of Western Works on Early Medieval China (1981-1993), Part 2: Philosophy, Religion, and Tunhuang," EMC, 1(1995-96):135-44.

Lu, Xiuwen. "Studies of Wei-Jin Nanbeichao (A.D. 220-589) History in Mainland China (1990-1991)," EMC, 1(1994):97-111.

Noda, Toshiaki. "Japanese Studies on Wei-Jin Nanbeichao History in 1991," EMC, 1(1994):112-27.

Pearce, Scott. "A Survey of Recent Research in Western Languages on the History of Early Medieval China," EMC, 1(1994):128-49.

Guoxue.com In Chinese and focused on the PRC, this is an incredibly rich site that includes links to data bases (e.g., the twenty-five dynastic histories), reference materials, articles and discussion groups. It also contains information on current research trends, new publications, and the activities of different schools and institutes. This site is very much worth consulting by anyone working in Early Imperial or Early Medieval China. http://guoxue.com/

Les classiques des sciences sociales. Go to this site, which is owned by the Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, and perform a search on “chine” This will take you to a page with downloadable versions of many of the most important works of early French Sinologists, including Biot, Chavannes, Cordier, Couvreur, Granet, Grousset, Maspero and Wieger. Some work by DeGroot and Duyvendak is also included. A real treasure. http://classiques.uqac.ca/

Xiangyata 象牙塔 An extraordinarily rich site for early Chinese history. Contains news of the field, scholarly articles, new on new publications, and links to useful sites. Should be consulted by anyone doing research on the period. http://www.xiangyata.net/

Zhongguo qing shao nian xin shiji du shu wang ("China Youth Readings Net") Although this site is not intended for a scholarly readership, it does contain digital (and searchable) versions of a number of important texts from the Han-Tang period. For example, the section on thought includes Shi shuo xin yu and the Wen xin diao long. The section on literature includes poetry and prose, and that on historical materials contains the dynastic histories and other texts. Simplified characters. http://blog.cnread.net/l

Zhongguo lishixue nianjian 中国历史学年鉴 [Chinese Historical Studies Annual].
Published since 1980. Contains overviews for the year broken down by historical period, reports on conferences, archeological discoveries, bibliographies, and news of the field. Very useful.

Zhongguo shi yanjiu dongtai 中国史研究动态 [English title: Trends of Recent Resesearches on the History of China]. Published monthly by the History Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Carries an annual overview of research on Qin-Han and one on WJNBC history as well as notices of conferences and new publications. Very useful.

Zhang Shunhui 張舜徽, Cui Shuting 崔曙庭, and Wang Ruiming 王瑞明, eds. Hou Han shu ci dian 後漢書辭典 [Dictionary to the History of the Later Han Dynasty]. Ji’nan: Shandong jiaoyu chubanshe, 1994. A dictionary of people, titles, places, and terms from the HHs. The individual entries include page numbers from the Zhonghua shuju edition for the primary citation. However, the entries do not necessarily cover all the citations for a given topic, so users may want to consult other indexes as well.

_____. San guo zhi cidian 三國志辭典 [Dictionary to the Records of the Three States]. Ji’nan: Shandong jiaoyu chubanshe, 1992. A dictionary of people, titles, places, and terms from the Sgz. The individual entries include page numbers from the Zhonghua shuju edition for the primary citation. However, the entries do not necessarily cover all the citations for a given topic, so users may want to consult other indexes as well.

b. History:

Bielenstein, Hans The Restoration of the Han Dynasty, with Prolegomena on the Historiography of the Hou Han Shu. Göteborg: Elanders Boktryckeri Aktiebolag, 1953. Reprinted in BMFEA 26 (1954). The author advanced the novel contention that Wang Mang's fall resulted from the devastation and turmoil caused by the Yellow River's breaching its dikes. For the counterview, see Yu Yingshi 余英時. “Dong Han zhengquan zhi jianli yu shizu daxing zhi guanxi" 東漢政權之建立與士族大姓之關係 Xinya xuebao 新亞學報 1.2 (Feb. 1956): 270-80.

_____. “Lo-yang in Later Han Times,” BMFEA 48 (1976): 3-142. Meticulous description of the physical setting of the city based on literary sources.

_____. “The Restoration of the Han Dynasty. Vol. 4, The Government.” BMFEA 51 (1979): 1–300. Intended to be used in conjunction with the author's The Han Bureaucracy. (See next section.)

_____. “Wang Mang, the Restoration of the Han Dynasty, and Later Han.” In CHC, 1:223–290. Bielenstein, in this article, repeats his assertion that Wang Mang's fall was caused by Yellow River flooding. He does not address the points made by Yu Yingshi. (See above.)

Chittick, Andrew. “The Life and Legacy of Liu Biao: Governor, Warlord, and Imperial Pretender in Late Han China.” Journal of Asian History 37.2 (2003):155-86.

Cutter, Robert Joe. "The incident at The Gate: Cao Zhi, the Succession, and Literary Fame," TP 71:4-5 (1985).

Cutter, Robert Joe and William Gordon Crowell, translators. Empresses and Consorts: Selections from Chen Shou's Records of the Three States with Pei Songzhi's Commentary. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1999.

de Crespigny, Rafe. "The Chinese Warlord in Fact and Fiction: a Study of Ts'ao Ts'ao," Bulletin of the Chinese Historical Association, Taipei, 4 (1972):304-328 [translated into Chinese by Lu Jianrong, Cao Cao, Taipei 1980, 195-217].

______. "Civil War in Early China: Ts'ao Ts'ao at the Battle of Kuan-tu," Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 5:1-2 (December 1967): 51
-64

______. "The military geography of the Yangtse and the early history of the Three Kingdoms state of Wu," Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 4:1 (June 1966): 61-76.

_______, tr. To Establish Peace: Being the Chronicle of Later Han for the Years 189 to 220 AD as Recorded in Chapters 59 to 69 of the Zizhi tongjian of Sima Guang. 2 vols. Canberra: Faculty of Asian Studies, Australian National University, 1996. This is a completely revised version of the author's The Last of Han.

______. “The Harem of Emperor Huan: A Study of Court Politics of the Later Han.” PFEH 12(1975): 1–42.

______. “Man from the Margin: Cao Cao and the Three Kingdoms.” The Fifty-first George Ernest Morrison Lecture in Ethnology. Canberra: Australian National University, 1990.

______. “Political Protest in Imperial China: The Great Proscription of Later Han, 167–184.” PFEH 11 (1975): 1–36.

______. The Records of the Three Kingdoms. Centre of Oriental Studies Occasional Paper no. 9. Canberra: Australian National University Centre of Oriental Studies, 1970.

______. “The Three Kingdoms and Western Jin: A History of China in the Third Century AD.” Parts 1 and 2. East Asian History 1 (June 1991): 1–36; 2 (December 1991): 143–165. These were prepared to be part of the Cambridge History of China, Vol. 2, which remains unpublished.

Eikenberry, Karl W. "Cao Cao: Ancient China's Military Master." Military History 12:1 (April 1995): 38.

Fang, Achilles, trans. The Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms (220-265). Chapters 69-78 from the Tz'u-chih t'ung-chien by Ssu-ma Kuang. 2 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1952. This is an invaluable reference. In addition to translating the portions of Sima Guang's Zizhi tongjian covering the Three Kingdoms period, in his notes Fang translates copious amounts of parallel material from the Sanguo zhi.
However, the style is somewhat wooden and many terms, such as official titles, are merely transliterated.

Gardiner, K.H.J. "The Kung-sun warriors of Liao-tung (189-238)," PFEH 5 (March 1972): 59-107; and 6 (September 1972):141-201.

Goi Naohiro 五井直弘. Kandai no gōzoku shakai to kokka 漢代の豪族社会と国家 [Han Dynasty Elite Society and the State]. Tokyo:
Meicho kankoo kai, 2001. Seven articles originally published between 1953 and 1970 by a leading Japanese historian. Focus is the political role of the elite families haozu from the founding of the Qin Empire to the fall of the Han and the rise of Cao Cao.

_____. "Go Kan ōchō to gōzoku" 後漢王朝と豪族 [Later Han Court and the Elite Families]. In Sekai rekishi 4 kodai Tō Ajia no seikei I 世界
歴史 4 古代東アジアの成形 I. Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, 1970, 403-44.

Goodman, Howard L. Ts'ao P'i Transcendant: The Political Culture of Dynasty-Founding in China at the End of the Han. Seattle, WA: Scripta Serica, 1998. Rev. article. Andrew Chittick. "History and the Three Kingdoms: Three Recent Approaches," EMC 7 (2001):79-107.

Goodrich, Chauncey. "Two Chapters in the Life of an Empress of the Later Han." Part 1 and 2. HJAS 25 (1964–1965): 165–177; 26 (1966): 187–210.

Ho, Tzu-ch'uan. "Early Development of Manorial Economy in Wei and Tsin." In E-Tu Zen Sun and John DeFrancis, eds. Chinese Social
History
. Washington, D.C.: American Council of Learned Societies, 1956.

Hsü, Cho-yun. “The Roles of the Literati and of Regionalism in the Fall of the Han Dynasty.” In Norman Yoffee and George L. Cowgill, eds. The Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1988. 176-95.

Holzman, Donald. “Literary Criticism in China in the Early Third Century a.d.” Asiatica Studien 28.2 (1974): 113–149.

_____. "Ts'ao Chih and the immortals." AM third series 1:1 (1988).

Ikeuchi, Hiroshi. "The Chinese Expeditions to Manchuria under the Wei dynasty," Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko 4 (1929):71-119.

_____. "The Establishment of Tai-fang Prefecture by the Kung-suns and Lo-lang and Tai-fang Prefectures as under the Wei dynasty," Shi-en 2:6 (September 1929).

Henry, Eric. "Chu-ko Liang in the Eyes of his Contemporaries," HJAS 52:2 (December 1992): 589-612.

Killigrew, John W. "The Role of the mou-shi in The Sanguo Zhi," Journal of Asian History 32:1 (1998) :49-67.

_____. "Zhuge Liang and the Northern Campaign of 228-234," EMC 5 (1999): 55-91.

_____. "A Case Study of Chinese Civil Warfare: The Cao-Wei Conquest of Shu Han in A.D. 263," Civil Wars 4.4 (2001): 95-114.

_____. "The Reunification of China in A.D. 280: Jin's Conquest of Eastern Wu," EMC 9 (2003): 1-34.

Kuan Yu-chien. Cao Caos Leben und seine gegenwartige Bewertung. Mitteilungen, Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Natur-und Volker-kunde Ostasiens e.V., Hamburg und Tokyo, volume 70. Hamburg: 1970.

Kuo, Mo-jo. "A Reappraisal of the Case of Ts'ao Ts'ao," Chinese Studies in History and Philosophy 1:4 (1968).

Leban, Carl. "Managing Heaven's Mandate: Coded Communication in the Accession of Ts'ao P'i, A.D. 220." In David T. Roy and Tsien Tsuen-hsuin, eds. Ancient China: Studies in Early Civilization. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 1978, 315-42.

Mansvelt Beck, B. J. “The Fall of Han.” CHC 1.317–376.

Michaud, Paul. "The Yellow Turbans." MS 17 (1958): 47-127.

Pearce, Scott, Audrey Spiro, and Patricia Ebrey, eds. Culture and Power in the Reconstitution of the Chinese Realm, 200-600. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2003.
Collection of nine articles on different aspects of the literature, government institutions, economy, art, religion and thought of the Nan-Bei chao period and an overview “Introduction” on “key features of the historical landscape of the period.”

Wu, An-chia. "The New Image of Ts'ao Ts'ao: Controversies over The Reappraisal of Historical Figures," Issues and Studies 11:11
(November 1975): 39-47.

c. Government:

Bielenstein, Hans H. The Bureaucracy of Han Times. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

______. “The Restoration of the Han Dynasty. Vol. 4, The Government.” BMFEA 51 (1979): 1–300.

______. “Lo-yang in Later Han Times.” BMFEA 48 (1976): 1–142.

Goodman, Howard Lazar. Ts'ao P'i Transcendent: The Political Culture of Dynasty- Founding in China at the End of the Han. Seattle: Scripta Serica, 1998. Rev. article. Andrew Chittick. "History and the Three Kingdoms: Three Recent Approaches," EMC 7 (2001):79-107.

Hsing I-tien (Xing Yitian) 邢義田. "Dong Han chaju xiaolian de nianling xianzhi" 東漢察舉孝廉的年齡限制 [Eastern Han Age Limits on Recruitment and the Filial and Incorrupt], Dalu zazhi 大陸雜誌 66.4 (1983):176-185.

Leban, Carl. “Managing Heaven’s Mandate: Coded Communications in the Accession of Ts’ao P’ei, A.D. 220.” In David T. Roy and Tsuen- hsuin Tsien, eds. Ancient China: Studies in Early Civilization, 315–341. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 1978.

_____. "Sale of Office or ‘Fines' in the Later Han: A Matter of Interpretation." In Albert E. Dien, ed. State and Society in Early Medieval China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990, 31-47.

______. “Ts’ao Ts’ao and the Rise of Wei: the Early Years.” Ph.D. diss., Columbia, 1971. A meticulously researched and detailed description
of the events surrounding Cao Cao's rise to power.

Young, Gregory C. “Court Politics in the Later Han: Officials and the Consort Clan, A.D. 132–144.” PFEH 34 (1986): 1–36.

d. Literature and Language:

Asslein, Mark Laurent. "'A Significant Season': Literature in a Time of Endings: Cai Yong and a Few Contemporaries." Ph. D. dissertation. University of Washinton, 1997. AAT 9736238.

Coblin, W. South. A Handbook of Eastern Han Sound Glosses. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 1983.

Cai, Zongqi. The Matrix of Lyric Transformation. Poetic Modes and Self-presentation in Early Chinese Pentasyllabic Poetry. Michigan Monographs in Chinese Studies, Vol. 75. Ann Arbor, MI: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 1996. Rev. Jonathon Pease. MS 47 (1999): 528-30.

Cutter, Robert Joe. “To the Manner Born? Nature and Nurture in Early Medieval Chinese Literary Thought." In Scott Pearce Audrey Spiro, and Patricia Ebrey, eds. Culture and Power in the Reconstitution of the Chinese Realm, 200-600. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2003, 53-71.

_____. "Saying Goodbye: The Transformation of the Dirge in Early Medieval China," EMC 10-11.1 (2004): 67-129.

Holzman, Donald. “Literary Criticism in China in the Early Third Century A.D.” Asiatica Studien 28.2 (1974): 113-149.

Kinney, Anne Behnke. The Art of the Han Essay: Wang Fu's Ch'ien-fu lun. Arizona State University Center for Asian Studies Monograph Series 26. Tempe: Center for Asian Studies, Arizona State University, 1990.

Knechtges, David R. "Wit, Humor, and Satire in Early Chinese Literature (to A.D. 220)." MS 29 (1970-71): 79-98.

Pearson, Margaret. Wang Fu and the Comments of a Recluse. Tempe, AZ: Center for Asian Studies, Arizona State University, 1989.

Tsien, Tsuen-hsuin. Written on Bamboo and Silk: The Beginnings of Chinese Books and Inscriptions. 2nd edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004 [1962].

Yoshikawa, Kōjirō 吉川幸次郎. Sangokushi jitsuroku 三國志實錄. Tōkyō: Chikuma Shobō, 1962. In studies on Cao Cao and Cao Zhi Yoshikawa seeks to cut through the myths surrounding the Caos and determine what they were really like. Yoshikawa was an important and prolific scholar of Chinese literature and cultural history.

Classics:

Asselin, Mark Laurent. "The Lu-School Reading of ‘Guanju' as Preserved in an Eastern Han fu," JAOS 117:3 (July-Sept. 1997):427-43.

Lynn, Richard John, tr. The Classic of Changes: A New Translation of the I Ching as Interpreted by Wang Pi. Translations from the Asian Classics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.

Historiography:

Hou Han shu:

Bielenstein, Hans. The Restoration of the Han Dynasty, with Prolegomena on the Historiography of the Hou Han Shu. Göteborg: Elanders Boktryckeri Aktiebolag, 1953. Reprinted in BMFEA 26 (1954).

_____. “Later Han Inscriptions and Dynastic Biographies: A Historical Comparison. Zhongyang yanjiuyuan guoji Hanxue huiyi lunwen ji [Proceedings of the international conference on Sinology]. Taipei, October 1981, 571-86.

Blue, Rhea C. “The Argumentation of the Shih-Huo Chih Chapters of the Han, Wei, and Sui Dynastic Histories.” HJAS 11.1-2 (1948): 1-118.

Beck, B.J. Mansvelt. The Treatises of Later Han: Their Author, Sources, Contents and Place in Chinese Historiography. Sinica Leidensia no. 21. Leiden: Brill, 1990.

Fan Ye 范曄(398-445). Hou Hanshu 後漢書 [History of the Later Han]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1963. Punctuated critical edition that is the easiest to use but which does not supplant the following..

Wang Xianqian 王先歉 (1842-1918). Hou Han shu jijie 後漢書集解 [History of the Later Han with collected explications]. Changsha : Wang shi jiao kan, 1915. Various later reprints. Indispensible for its handy collection of commentarial comment.

Translations (including baihua):

Hill, John E.. “The Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu: The "Xiyu juan" ‘Chapter on the Western Regions’ from Hou Hanshu 88.” Second edition (September 2003). http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/hhshu/hou_han_shu.html

Kunstler, Jerzy. “Deux biographies de Tcheng Hiuan.” RO 26(1962).1:23-64.

_____. “La foret des lettrés (I),” RO 35(1973).2:7-32.

_____. “La foret des lettrés (II),” RO 39(1977).1:5-34.

_____. “La foret des lettrés (III),” RO 40(1978).1:95-117.

_____. “La foret des lettrés (IV),” RO 42(1981).1:41-66.

_____. “Some Confucian Behavior Patterns in the Hou Han shu,” RO 36(1974).2:151-159.

Mullie, Jos. L. M. "Les Sien-Pi," CAJ 13 (1969): 24-51. Translation of the section on the Xianbei in Hou Han shu 90 (120).

Swann, Nancy Lee, trans. “Biography of the Empress Têng, A Translation from the Annals of the Later Han Dynasty (Hou Han shu, Chüan 10a).” JAOS 51 (1931): 138–59.

Zhang Huikang 章惠康. Hou Hanshu jin zhu jin yi 後漢書今注今譯 [History of the Later Han with Modern Annotation and Modern Translation] np: Yueli chubanshe, 1997. Scholarly translation into modern Chinese. Very useful.

Sanguozhi:

Chen Shou 陳壽 (233–297). Sanguozhi 三國志 [Records of the Three States]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1962.

Lu Bi 盧弼 (1876–1967), ed. Sanguozhi jijie 三國志集解 [Records of the Three States with Collected Explanations]. Taipei: Hanjing wenhua shiye youxian gongsi, 1981 [1936]. Lu's subcommentary collects comments and glosses from a wide range of traditional Chinese scholars. This work is indispensible to anyone working on the Sgz.

Miao Yue, ed. Sanguozhi xuan zhu 三國志選注 [Annotated Selections from the Records of the Three States]. 3 vols. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1984. Miao Yue was the doyen of Sgz scholars. His selections are accompanied by excellent notes that should be consulted by anyone working on the Sgz.

Translations (including baihua):

Cao Wenzhu et al., trans. Baihua San guo zhi 白話三國志 [Record of the Three States in Vernacular Chinese]. 2 vols. Beijing: Zhongyang minzu xueyuan chubanshe, 1994.

Cutter, Robert Joe and William G. Crowell. Empresses and Consorts. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2000. Contains translation of fasciles 5, 34 and 50, which are devoted to empresses and consorts. The introduction discusses the history of the Sgz and gives a brief overview of women in China from earliest times through the ThreeStates period.

de Crespigny, Rafe, trans. The Biography of Sun Chien. Centre of Oriental Studies Occasional Paper no. 5. Canberra: Australian National University, 1966. Translation of Sgz 46.

DeWoskin, Kenneth J., trans. Doctors, Diviners, and Magicians of Ancient China: Biographies of Fang-shih. New York: Columbia University Press, 1983.

Fang Beichen 方北辰. Sanguozhi zhu yi 三國志注譯 [Records of the Three States, Annotated and Translated]. Xi’an: Shaanxi renmin chubanshe, 1995. A student of Miao Yue (see below), Fang is one of the leading Sgz scholars. Contains excellent notes and translates Chen Shou's text into baihua. While Pei Songzhi's commentary is included, it is not annotated. This work is indispensible to anyone working on the Sgz.

Imataka Makoto 今鷹真, Inami Ritsuko 井波律子, and Kominami Ichiro 小南一郎, trans. Sangoku shi 三國志 [Records of the Three States]. 3 vols. Tokyo: Chikuma shobô, 1977–1989. Revised edition in 8 vols. Tokyo: Chikuma shobō,1992-1993. The standard translation in Japanese. Translates the entire text, including Pei Songzhi's commentary and includes a chronology, maps, official titles and other useful material. Indispensible.

Liu Guohui 劉國輝 et al. Sanguozhi (xiandai wen ban) 三國志 (現代文版) [Records of the Three States (in Modern Chinese)]. 2 vols. Beijing: Hongqi chubanshe, 1992.

Lu Zhixiao 路志霄 and Hai Chengrui 海呈瑞, eds. Sanguozhi xuan yi 三國志選譯 [Selected Translations from the Records of the Three States]. Lanzhou: Lanzhou daxue chubanshe, 1989.

Maruyama Matsuyuki 丸山松辛, et al. trans. Sangoku shi 三國史. [History of the Three States]. 6 vols. Tokyo: Tokuma shoten, 1979 - 1980.

Miyakawa Hisayuki 宮川尚志, trans. Sangoku shi 三國志 [Records of the Three States]. Tokyo: Meitoku shuppansha, 1960. Selected chapters translated by one of Japan's leading Six Dynasties scholars.

Mullie, Jos. L.M. "La bataille de Pai-ling-chan 'Montagne du loup blanc," CAJ 13 (1969):81-98. Translations of selected passages from the Sanguo zhi.

Su Yuanlei 蘇淵雷, ed. Sanguozhi jin zhu jin yi 三國志今注今譯 [A Modern Annotated Translation of the Records of the Three States]. 3 vols. Changsha: Hunan shifan daxue chubanshe, 1992. Contains excellent notes and translates Chen Shou's text into baihua. While Pei Songzhi's commentary is included, it is not annotated. This work is indispensible to anyone working on the Sgz. Though similar to the work by Fang Beichen (above), Su and Fang sometimes explain points the other does not.

Tian Yuqing 田余庆 and Wu Shuping 吳樹平, eds. Sanguozhi jin yi 三國志今譯 [A Modern Translation of the Records of the Three States]. Zhengzhou: Zhongzhou guji chubanshe, 1991. A translation into modern Chinese by two of China's leading scholars on the period.

Tong Chao 童超, Zhang Guangqin 張光勤, and Zhang Shengru 張盛如, eds. San guo zhi jinghua zhu yi 三國志精華注譯 [The Best of the Records of the Three States, Annotated and Translated]. Beijing: Beijing Guangbo xueyuan chubanshe, 1993.

Wang Jingzhi 王靜芝 et al., trans. Baihua Sanguozhi 白話三國志 [Record of the Three States in Vernacular Chinese]. Taibei: He Luo tushu chuban she, 1970. Rpt. Taibei: Guojia chubanshe, 2006.

Studies and annotations on the Sgz:

de Crespigny, Rafe. The Records of the Three Kingdoms. Centre of Oriental Studies Occasional Paper no. 9. Canberra: Australian National University Centre of Oriental Studies, 1970. A brief introduction to Chen Shou’s Sgz and Pei Songzhi’s commentary. Incorporates a listing of the works cited by Pei.

Hong Yisun 洪飴孫 (1773–1816), ed. San guo zhiguan biao 三國職官表 [Table of Official Positions during the Three States]. In Ershihwushi bu bian 二十五補編 [Supplements to the Twenty-five Histories]. Shanghai: Kaiming shudian, 1936-37. Various reprints.

Liang Zhangju 梁章鉅 (1775–1849). Sanguozhi pangzheng 三國志旁證 [Corroborative Annotations to the Records of the Three States]. Taibei: Yiwen yinshuguan, 1955. A most useful work that assembles a number of the major commentators and annotators. A punctuated and annotated version by Yang Yaokun 楊耀坤 was published by Fujian renmin chubanshe in 2000.

Luo, Guanzhong 罗贯中(ca. 1330-ca. 1400), Xu Panqing 许盘淸, and Zhou Wenye 周文业. "San guo yan yi" "San guo zhi" dui zhao ben "三国 演义" "三国志"对照本 [Comparative Text for the Sanguo yan yi and the Sanguo zhi]. Nanjing: Jiangsu guji chubanshe, 2002.

McLaren, Anne E. "History Repackaged in the Age of Print: The Sanguozhi and Sanguo yanyi," BSOAS 69.2 (2006): 293-313.

Miao Yue et al. Sanguo zhi daodu 三國志導讀 [Reader's Guide to the Records of the Three States]. Chengdu: Ba Shu shushe, 1988.

Qian Dazhao 錢大昭 (1744–1813). Sanguo zhi bianyi 三國志辨疑 [Discussion of Doubtful Passages in the Records of the Three States]. In Shixue congshu 史學叢書 [Collectanea of Historiography]. In Baibu congshu jicheng 百部叢書集成 [A Hundred Collectanea].

Tang Geng 唐庚 (1071–1121). Sanguo zashi 三國雜事 [Miscellaneous Affairs of the Three States]. In Baibu congshu jicheng 百部叢書集成 [A Hundred Collectanea].

Tillman, Hoyt Cleveland. “Historic Analogies and Evaluative Judgments: Zhuge Liang as Portrayed in Chen Shou’s ‘Chronicle of the Three
Kingdoms’ and Pei Songzhi’s Commentary,” OE 43 (2002): 60-70.

_____. “The Development of Tension between Virtue and Achievement in Early Confucianism: Attitudes toward Kuan Chung and Hegemon (pa) as Conceptual Symbols,” PEW 31.1 (1981): 17-28

Zhang Shunhui 張舜徽, Cui Shuting 崔曙庭, and Wang Ruiming 王瑞明, eds. San guo zhi cidian 三國志辭典 [A Dictionary to the Records of the Three States]. Ji’nan: Shandong jiaoyu chubanshe, 1992.

Wu Jinhua 吳金華. San guo zhi jiaogu 三國志校詁 [Collations and Explanations to the Records of the Three States]. Nanjing: Jiangsu guji chubanshe, 1990.

_____. San guo zhi cong kao 三國志叢考 [Collected Studies of the Records of the Three States]. Shanghai: Guji chubanshe, 2000.

Huayang guozhi:

Liu, Lin 劉琳, ed. Huayang guozhi jiao zhu 華陽國志校注 [Record of the States South of Mt. Hua (by Chang Qu 常璩), Collated and Annotated]. Chengdu: Ba Shu shushe, 1984.

Ren, Naiqiang 任乃強, ed. Huayang guozhi jiao zhu 華陽國志校補 [Record of the States South of Mt. Hua (by Chang Qu 常璩), Collated and Supplemented]. Shanghai:Guji chubanshe, 1987. This is the most comprehensive and thorough study of the Huayang guozhi.

Translations:

Nakabayashi, Shirō 中林史朗. Kayō kokushi 華陽国志 [Record of the States South of Mt. Hua]. Tokyo: Meitoku shuppansha, 1994. Selected chapters translated into Japanese.

Kleeman, Terry. Great Perfection: Religion and Ethnicity in a Chinese Millenial Kingdom. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1998. Contains a brief discussion of the work of Chang Qu based upon Ren Naiqiang (see above) and translates portions of the Hygz covering the Li Cheng regime (304-349) in Southwest China. Also discusses other sources.

Poetry/Rhapsody:

Cutter, Robert Joe. “Brocade and Blood: The Cockfight in Chinese and English Poetry,” JAOS 109.1 (1989): 1–16.

______. “Cao Zhi (192–232) and His Poetry.” Ph.D. diss., University of Washington, 1983.

______. “On Reading Cao Zhi’s ‘Three Good Men’: Yong shi shi or Deng lin shi?” CLEAR 11 (December 1989): 1–11.

______. “The Death of Empress Zhen: Fiction and Historiography in Early Medieval China,” JAOS 112 (1992): 577–583.

______. “The Incident at the Gate: Cao Zhi, the Succession, and Literary Fame,” TP 71 (1985): 228–262.

Graham, William T. , Jr. "Mi Heng's 'Rhapsody on a Parrot,'" HJAS 39.1 (June 1979):39-54.

Holzman, Donald. Chinese Literature in Transition from Antiquity to the Middle Ages. Variorum Collected Studies Series CS605. Aldershot, U.K., and Brookfield, Vt.: Ashgate, 1998. Collected articles by one of the foremost scholars of the literature and history of the late Han-Six Dynasties period.

_____.“Les Sept Sages de la Forêt des Bambous et la société de leur temps,” TP 44.4-5 (1956): 317-46.

_____. La vie et la pensée de Hi K’ang (223-262 ap. J.-C.). Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1957.

_____. Poetry and Politics: The Life and Works of Juan Chi (A.D. 210-263). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1976.

Knechtges, David R. "To Praise the Han: The Eastern Capital Fu of Pan Ku and His Contemporaries." In Wilt L. Idema and E. Zürcher, Thought and Law in Qin and Han China: Studies Dedicated to Anthony Hulsewé on the Occasion of His Eightieth Birthday. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1990,118-39.

Kroll, Paul W. “Portraits of Ts’ao Ts’ao: Literary Studies on the Man and the Myth.” Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1976.

Miao, Ronald C. “The ‘Ch’i ai shih’ of the Late Han and Chin Periods (I).” HJAS 33 (1973): 183–223.

______. Early Medieval Chinese Poetry: The Life and Verse of Wang Ts’an (A.D. 177–217). Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1982.

Roy, David T. “The Theme of the Neglected Wife in the Poetry of Ts’ao Chih.” JAS 19 (1959): 25–31.

e. Thought/Religion:

Ariel, Yoav. "The K'ung Family Masters' Anthology and Third-Century Confucianism." In Irene Eber, ed., Confucianism: the Dynamics of Tradition, ed. Irene Eber. New York, Macmillan, 1986, 39-59.

_____. K'ung-Ts'ung-tzu: The K'ung Family Masters' Anthology. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.

Bielenstein, Hans. “Han Portents and Prognostications.” BMFEA 56 (1984): 97-112

Boltz, William G. "Evoking the Ancestor: The Stele Hymn of the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 C.E.)" Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University, 1997.

Brashier, K.E. “The Spirit Lord of Baishi Mountain: Feeding the Deities or Heeding the yinyang?” EC 26-27 (2001-2):159-231.

Chan, Alan K. L. Two Visions of the Way: A Study of the Wang Pi and the Ho-shang Kung Commentaries on the Lao-tzu. Albany: SUNY Press, 1991.

Chan, Tim Wai-keung. "Ruan Ji's and Xi Kang's Visits to Two "Immortals," MS 44 (1996):142-165.

Ch’en Ch’i-yün. “A Confucian Magnate’s Idea of Political Violence: Hsün Shuang’s (128–190 a.d.) Interpretation of the Book of Changes.” TP 54 (1968):73–115.

______. “Confucian, Legalist, and Taoist Thought in Later Han.” CHC 1.767–807.

______. Hsün Yüeh (a.d. 148–209): The Life and Reflections of an Early Medieval Confucian. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.

_____. Hsün Yüeh and The Mind of Late Han China: A Translation of The Shen-chien With Introduction and Annotations. Reviewed Edward T. Ch’ien, HJAS 43.1 (June 1983):333-44.

Cheng, Anne. Étude sur le Confucianisme Han: l’élaboration d’une tradition exégétique sur les classiques. Mémoires de l’Institut des Hautes Études Chinoises 26. Paris: Collège de France, 1985.

Goodman, Howard Lazar. Ts'ao P'i Transcendent: The Political Culture of Dynasty-Founding in China at the End of the Han. Seattle: Scripta Serica, 1998. Rev. article. Andrew Chittick. "History and the Three Kingdoms: Three Recent Approaches," EMC 7 (2001):79-107.

Hsiao Kung-chüan. A History of Chinese Political Thought. Volume 1, From the Beginnings to the Sixth Century A.D. trans. by F. W. Mote. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979.

Gumbrecht, Cordula. "Die Physiognomie von vier Kaiserinnen im China," MS 50 (2002):171-214.

Hsing I-tien (Xing Yitian) 邢義田. "Dong Han de fangshi yu qiuxian fengqi–Feizhi bei duji," 東漢的方士與求仙風氣–肥致碑讀記 [Eastern Han Masters of Techniques and the Vogue of Seeking Immortals -- Notes on the Fei Zhi Stele], Dalu zazhi 大陸雜誌 94.2 (1997):1-13.

Kinney, Anne Behnke. The Art of the Han Essay: Wang Fu's Ch'ien-fu lun. Arizona State University Center for Asian Studies Monograph Series 26. Tempe, 1990.

_____. "Predestination and Prognostication in the Ch'ien-fu lun." JCR 19 (1991): 27-45.

Le Blanc, Charles, and Susan Blader, eds. Chinese Ideas about Nature and Society: Studies in Honour of Derk Bodde. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1987.

Loewe, Michael. "Han Funerary Practice." In Cary Liu, Michael Nylan and Anthony Barbieri-Low. Recarving China's Past: Art, Archeology, and Architecture of the "Wu Family Shrines." New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005, 99-118.

Makeham, John, tr. Balanced Discourses: A Bilingual Edition. The Classsical Library of Chinese Literature and Thought. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. Rev. Mark Laurent Asselin. JAOS 125.2 (2005):328-31.

_____. Name and Actuality in Chinese Thought. Albany: SUNY Press, 1994. Rev. Mark Laurent Asselin. JAOS 117:392-95.

Mansvelt Beck, B. J. “The Date of the Taiping jing,” TP 66 (1980): 149-82.

Nylan, Michael. “Confucian Piety and Individualism in Han China,” JAOS 116.1 (1996): 1–27

_____. "Han Classicists Writing about Their Own Tradition," PEW 47.2 (1997): 133-88.

_____. "A Problematic Model: The Han ‘Orthodox Synthesis,' Then and Now." In Kai-wing Chow et al, eds. Imagining Boundaries: Changing Confucian Doctrines, Texts, and Hermeneutics. Albany, SUNY Press, 1999, 17-56.

_____, tr. The Canon of Supreme Mystery. Albany: SUNY Press, 1993. Translation of Yang Xiong's Tai xuan jing 太玄經.

_____, and Nathan Sivin. "The First Neo-Confucianism: An Introduction to Yang Hsiung's ‘Canon of Supreme Mystery' (T'ai hsüan ching, ca. 4 B.C.)." In Charles Le Blanc, and Susan Blader, eds. Chinese Ideas about Nature and Society: Studies in Honour of Derk Bodde. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1987, 41-99

Paper, Jordan D. The Fu-Tzu: A Post-Han Confucian Text. Leiden : E.J. Brill, 1987. Reviewed Charles Holcombe, HJAS 50.2 (Dec., 1990): 733-740.

Pokora, Timotheus, trans. Hsin lun (New Treatise) and Other Writings by Huan T’an (43 B.C.–28 A.D.). Michigan Papers in Chinese Studies, no. 20. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 1975.

Seidel, Anna. “Imperial Treasures and Taoist Sacraments—Taoist Roots in the Apocrypha.” In Michel Strickmann, ed. Tantric and Taoist Studies in Honour of R. A. Stein, 291–371.

Stein, Rolf A. “Remarques sur les mouvements du taoïsme politico-religieux au Iie siècle ap. J.-C.,” TP 50.1-3 (1963): 1-78.

_____. “Religious Taoism and Popular Religion from the Second to the Seventh Centuries.” In In Holmes Welch and Anna Seidel, eds. Facets of Taoism: Essays in Chinese Religion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979, 53-81.

Strickmann, Michel. ed., Tantric and Taoist Studies in Honour of R.A. Stein. 2 Vols. Bruxelles: Institute Belge des Hautes Études Chinoises, 1983.

Svensson Ekström, Martin. “On the Concept of Correlative Cosmology,” BMFEA 72 (2000): 7-12.

Tjan Tjoe Som, trans. Po hu t’ung: The Comprehensive Discussions in the White Tiger Hall. 2 vols. Leiden: Brill, 1949–1952.

T’ang Yung-t’ung. “Wang Pi’s New Interpetation of the I ching and Lun you,” HJAS 10 (1947): 124-61.

Tsuchiya, Masaaki. “Confession of Sins and Awareness of Self in the Taiping jing.” In Livia Kohn and Harold D. Roth, eds. Daoist Identity: History, Lineage, and Ritual. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2002, 39-57.

von Zach, E., tr. Yang Hsiung’s Fa-yen (Worte strenger Ermahnung): Ein philosophischer Traktat aus dem Beginn der christlichen
Zeitrechnung.
Batavia: Lux, 1939.

_____. “Zur Verteidigung des chinesischen Philosophen Yang Hsiung,” MS 1 (1935-36):186-91.

Wagner, Rudolf G. “Interlocking Parallel Style: Laozi and Wang Bi,” Etudes Asiatiques 34.1 (1980): 18-58.

_____. “Wang Bi, ‘The Structure of the Laozi’s Pointers’ (Laozi weizhi lilüe).” TP 72.1-3 (1986): 92-129.

_____. The Craft of a Chinese Commentator: Wang Bi on the Laozi. Albany: SUNY Press, 2000.

_____. Language, Ontology, and Political Philosophy in China: Wang Bi’s Scholarly Exploration of the Dark (Xuanxue). Albany: SUNY Press, 2003.

Ziporyn, Brook. “Spatio-Temporal Order in Yang Xiong’s Taixuan jing,” EMC 2 (1995-96):40-85.

New Text/Old Text Controversy:

Dull, Jack L. "A Historical Introduction to the Apochryphal (Ch'an-wei) Texts of the Han Dynasty." Ph.D. diss. University of Washington, 1966. DAI 66-11990. The seminal study in a Western language on a difficult topic.

_____. "History and the Old Text-New Text Controversy in the Han. Unpublished 1966 ms. Posits that Old Text views were authoritarian and supported the emperor as the ultimate authority while New Text thought supported the notion of a higher authority--heaven. Also shows that while debates between the two schools could be heated, lines were not always starkly drawn and it was common for one person to favor texts from both schools. Available at http://e-asia.uoregon.edu/homer/

Miller, Roy Andrew. "The Wu-ching I-i of Hsü Shen," MS 33 (1977-78):1-21.

Nylan, Michael. "The chin wen/ku wen Controversy in Han Times." TP 80.1-3 (1994): 83-145.

_____. "The ku wen Documents in Han Times." TP 81.1-3 (1995): 25-50.

Tjan Tjoe Som, trans. Po hu t’ung: The Comprehensive Discussions in the White Tiger Hall. 2 vols. Leiden: Brill, 1949–1952.

van Ess, Hans. “The Apocryphal Texts of the Han Dynasty and the Old Text/New Text Controversy,” TP 85.1-3 (1999): 29-64.

_____. “The Old Text/New Text Controversy: Has the Twentieth Century Got It Wrong?” TP 80.1-3 (1994): 146-70.

_____. Politik und Gelehrsamkeit in der Zeit der Han (202 v. Chr.-220 n. Chr.): Die Alttext/Neutext-Kontroverse. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1993.

Wang, Baoxuan. "The Study of Ancient and Modern Text Classics: Dispute and Impications," Contemporary Chinese Thought 36.4 (Summer 2005): 58-81.

Wang Chong:

Forke, Alfred, tr. Lun-hêng. 2 volumes. 1907-1911; rpt., New York: Paragon, 1962.

Zufferey, Nicolas. “Quelques questions à propos de la biographie de Wang Chong (27-97?).” JA 282.1 (1994): 165-200.

_____. “Wang Chong et les ‘ru’ sous les Han: Problèmes de terminologie et de méthode.” Asiatische Studien 48 (1994): 1403-8.

_____. “Pourquoi Wang Chong critique-t-il Confucius?” Études chinoises 14.1 (1995):25-54.

_____. Wang Chong (27-97?): Connaisance, politique et vérité en Chine ancienne. [Schweizer Asiatische Studien: Monographien 19.] Berne: Peter Lang, 1995.

Zufferey, Nicolas, tr. Wang Chong: Discussions critiques. Conaissance de l’Orient 96. Paris: Gallimard, 1997.

Buddhism:
See under Early Medieval China



f. Society

Bielenstein, Hans. “The Census of China during the Period 2-742 A.D.,” BMFEA 19 (1947): 125-63.

_____. Bielenstein, Hans. “Chinese Historical Demography A.D. 2-1982,” BMFEA 59 (1987):1-288.

Ch’ü T’ung-tsu. Han Social Structure. Edited by Jack L. Dull. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1972. Review article. Robert Somers. "The Society of Early Imperial China: Three Recent Studies," JAS 38.1 (Nov. 1978):127-42; Chi-yun Chen, JAOS 94.2 (1974): 215.

Ebrey, Patricia B. The Aristocratic Families Of Early Imperial China : A Case Study Of The Po-Ling Ts‘ui Family. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978. Rev. Michael Dalby, HJAS 40.1 (June 1980):249-263.

_____. "The Economic and Social History of Later Han." In CHC 1.608-48.

_____. "Patron-Client Relations in the Later Han." JAOS 103.3 (1983): 533-42.

_____. “Toward a Better Understanding of the Later Han Upper Class.” State and Society in Early Medieval China. Ed. Albert E. Dien. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990, 49–72.

Goi Naosuhiro 五井直弘. Kandai no gōzoku shakai to kokka 漢代の豪族社会と国家 [Han Dynasty Elite Society and the State]. Tokyo: Meicho kankoo kai, 2001. Seven articles originally published between 1953 and 1970 by a leading Japanese historian. Focus the political role of the elite families haozu from the founding of the Qin Empire to the fall of the Han and the rise of Cao Cao.

Hsing I-tien (Xing Yitian) 邢義田. "Dong Han xiaolian de shenfen beijing" 東漢孝廉的身分背景 [The Social Background of those Selected as
Filial and Incorrupt during the Eastern Han]. Di er jie Zhongguo shehui jingji shi yantao hui lunwen ji 第二屆中國社會經濟史研討會論文集 [Proceedings of the second conference on Chinese social and economic historian]. Taibei, 1983, 1-56.

Xue Haipo 薛海波. "Dong Han Yingchuan haozu de guanliaohua han shizuhua" 东汉颍川豪族的官僚化和士族化 [Transformation of the Powerful Clans of Yingchuan into Bureaucrats and Elite Clans during the Eastern Han], Wenshizhe 文史哲 2006.6 (no. 297): 94-104.

Women:

Cutter, Robert Joe and William Gordon Crowell, trans. Empresses and consorts: selections from Chen Shou's Records of the Three States with Pei Songzhi's commentary. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1999. The "Prolegmena" discusses the changing role of women, particularly palace women, from earliest times down to the Three States period. Rev. Robert Chard, Nan Nü 4.1 (2002): 110-3. Rev. article. Andrew Chittick. "History and the Three Kingdoms: Three Recent Approaches," EMC 7 (2001):79-107.

Farmer, J.Michael. "The Three Chaste Ones of Ba: Local Perspectives on the Yellow Turban Rebellion on the Chengdu Plain," JAOS 125.1 (2005):191-202.

Hinsch, Bret. "The Origins of Han-Dynasty Consort Kin Power," EAH 25/26 (Jun/Dec 2003):1-24.

Goodrich, Chauncey. "Two Chapters in the Life of an Empress of the Later Han." Parts 1 and 2. HJAS 25 (1964–1965): 165–177; 26 (1966): 187–210.

Lee, Lily Xiao Hong. The Virtue of Yin: Studies on Chinese Women. Broadway, New South Wales: Wild Peony, 1994.

Nylan, Michael. "Golden Spindles and Axes: Elite Women in the Achaemenid and Han Empires." In Chenyang Li, The Sage and the Second Sex, 199-222. Peru, Illinois: Open Court, 2000, 199-222. Reprinted in Shankman and Durrant, Early China/Ancient Greece, 251-81.

Swann, Nancy Lee, trans. “Biography of the Empress Têng, A Translation from the Annals of the Later Han Dynasty (Hou Han shu, Chüan 10a).” JAOS 51 (1931): 138–59.

g. Economy:

Crowell, William G. “Government Land Policies and Systems in Early Imperial China.” Ph.D. diss. University of Washington, 1979. DEM 80- 02845.

Ebrey, Patricia B. "The Economic and Social History of Later Han." In CHC 1.608-48.

_____. "Estate and Family Management in Later Han as seen in the Monthly Instructions for the Four Classes," JESHO 17.2 (May 1974): 173-205.

Han, Fu-chih. "Economic thought and policies of China during the Three Kingdoms period," Bulletin of the National Compilation and Translation Committee 4:2 (December 1975).

Han Fuzhi (Han Fu-chih) 韓復智.Han shi lun ji 漢史論集 [Collected Writings on Han History]. Taibei: Wenshizhe chubanshe, 1980. Articles on economic issues and Later Han land tenure.

_____. Liang Han de jingji sixiang 兩漢的經濟思想 [Economic Thought of the Han] . Taibei : Zhongguo xue shu zhu zuo jiang zhu wei yuan hui, 1969.

Hsu, Cho-yun. Han Agriculture: The Formation of Early Chinese Agrarian Economy (206 B.C.-A.D. 220). Ed. Jack L. Dull. Han Dynasty China 2. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1980. Review article. Chi-yun Chen. "Han Dynasty China: Economy, Society and State Power. TP 70 (1984):127-48. Rev. Chauncey S. Goodrich. JAOS 103.4 (1983):804-6.

Li Jiannong 李劍農. Xian Qin Liang Han jingji shi gao 先秦兩漢經濟史稿 [Draft Economic History of Pre-Qin through the Han]. Beijing: Sanlian shudian, 1962.

Nishijima Sadao 西嶋定生. Chūgoku keizaishi kenkyū 中國經濟史硏究 [Studies on Chinese Economic History]. Tōkyō: Tōkyō Daigaku Shuppankai, 1966.  Nishijima was one of Japan's foremost authorities on Chinese economic history. This title contains studies of early imperial agriculture and land systems.

Nishimura Gen'yū 西村元佑. Chūgoku keizaishi kenkyū. Kinden seido hen 中國經濟史研究. 均田制度篇 [Studies on Chinese Economic History: The Equal Field System]. Kyoto: Tōyōshi Kenkyūkai, 1968.

Yü Ying-shih. Trade and Expansion in Han China: A Study in the Structure of Sino-Barbarian Economic Relations. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967


h. Art and Archeology:

Bielenstein, Hans. “Later Han Inscriptions and Dynastic Biographies: A Historiographical Comparison.” Proceedings of the International Conference on Sinology. Section on History and Archaeology. Taipei: Academia Sinica, 1981, 571-86.

Brashier, K.E. “Symbolic Discourse in Eastern Han Memorial Art: The Case of the Birchleaf Pear.” HJAS 65.2 (2005): 281-310.

Bulling, A. Gutkind. The Decoration of Mirrors of the Han Period. Artibus Asiae Supplementum 20. Ascona, Switzerland, 1960.

_____. “The Eastern Han Tomb at Ho-lin-ko-erh.” Archives of Asian Art 31 (1977-78): 79-103.

_____. “Historical Plays in the Arts of the Han Period.” Archives of Asian Art 21 (1967-68): 20-38.

Chaves, Jonathan. “A Han Painted Tomb at Lo-yang.” Artibus Asiae 30.1 (1968): 5-27.

Cheng Te-k’un. “Yin-yang Wu-hsing and Han Art.” HJAS 20.1-2 (1957): 162-86.

Hulsewe, A.F.P. “The Ch’in Documents Discovered in Hupei in 1975.” TP 64 (1978): 175-217 and 338.

_____. “Texts in Tombs.” Asiatische Studien 18-19 (1965): 78-89.

Kneib, André. “Le Siti shushi de Wei Heng (252-291): Première traité chinois de calligraphie,” Cahiers d’Extrême-Asie 9 (1996-97): 99-129.

Liu, Cary, Michael Nylan and Anthony Barbieri-Low. Recarving China's Past: Art, Archeology, and Architecture of the "Wu Family Shrines." New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005. A stunning book containing articles on the Wu family shrines, Han tombs in general, funerary objects, tomb construction, and funerary practice by leading specialists.

Powers, Martin J. Art and Political Expression in Early China. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.

Rhie, Marylin M. Early Buddhist art of China and Central Asia. Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 1999-. Vol. 1. Later Han, Three Kingdoms, and Western Chin in China and Bactria to Shan-shan in Central Asia ; vol. 2. The Eastern Chin and Sixteen Kingdoms Period in Chinas and Tumshuk, Kucha and Karashahr in Central Asia (2 pts.). Rev. Thomas Lawton, Artibus Asiae 59.1/2: 147-53; Gerd Wädow, MS 47 (1999): 564-67.

Thompson, Lydia Dupont. "The Yi'nan Tomb: Narrative and Ritual in Pictorial Art of the Eastern Han (25-220 C.E.)." Ph. D. dissertation. New York University, 1998.

Thorp, Robert L. “Mountain Tombs and Jade Burial Suits: Preparations for Eternity in the Western Han.” In George Kuwayama, ed., Ancient Mortuary Traditions of China: Papers on Chinese Ceramic Funerary Sculptures. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1991, 26- 39.

Wang, Eugene Yuejin. “Mirror, Death and Rhetoric: Reading Later Han Chinese Bronze Artifacts,” The Art Bulletin 76.3 (1994): 511-34.

Wang, Zhongshu. Han Civilization. Early Chinese Civilization Series. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982.

Yu Zhenbo 于振波. Zoumalou Wu jian chutan 走馬樓吳簡初探 [The Zoumalou Wood Strips: Preliminary Study]. Taibei: Wenjin chuban, 2004. Includes a bibliography of nearly 150 items concerning these important records.

Zheng, Yan. “Barbarian Images in Han Period Art.” Orientations 29.6 (1998): 50-59.

i. Foreign and Frontier Relations:

de Crespigny, Rafe. “The Ch’iang Barbarians and the Empire of Later Han: A Study in Frontier Policy.” PFEH 16 (1977): 1-25; and 18 (1978): 193-245.

Chavannes, Edouard. “Les pays d’occident d’après le Heou Han Chou.” TP 8 (1907): 149-234.

_____. “Les pays d’occident d’après le Wei Lio.” TP 6 (1905): 519-71.

Dani, A. H., et al. History of civilizations of Central Asia. 6 vols. Paris: UNESCO Pub, 1994.

Enoki, K. "Sogdiana and the Hsiung-nu," CAJ 1 (1955):1-62.

Hulsewé, A.F.P. “Quelques considérations sur le commerce de la soie au temps de la dynastie des Han.” Mélanges de Sinologie offerts à Monsieur Paul Demiéville, Bibliothèque de l’Institut des Hautes Études Chinoises 20. Paris, 1966-74, II.117-35.

Mullie, Jos. L. M. "Les Sien-Pi," CAJ 13 (1969): 24-51. Translation of the section on the Xianbei in Hou Han shu 90 (120).

Psarras, Sophia-Karin. "Han and Xiongnu. A reexamination of Cultural and Political Relations (I)," MS 51 (2003):55-236; (II) MS 52 (2004): 37- 93.

Silk Road Seattle. Web site. Maintained by the Simpson Center for the Humanities at the University of Washington. "Silk Road Seattle is an ongoing public education project using the "Silk Road" theme to explore cultural interaction across Eurasia from the beginning of the Common Era (A. D.) to the Seventeenth Century. Our principal goal is to provide via the Internet materials for learning and teaching about the Silk Road. Much is available here already: historical texts, well illustrated web pages on historic cities and architecture and on traditional culture of the Central Asian nomads, extensive annotated bibliographies of resources, an electronic atlas, and a stunning virtual art exhibit drawing on museum collections from around the world." This site links to a broad range of primary and secondary materials and is useful for all levels from K-12 to advanced researchers. Maps. Links. Texts. Illustrations. Maps. Timelines. http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/index.html/

Yü Ying-shih. “Han Foreign Relations.” In CHC, 1.377–462.

The Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu: The Xiyu juan. “Chapter on the Western Regions” from Hou Hanshu 88. Second Edition. (Extensively revised with additional notes and appendices) Translated by John E. Hill. September 2003. (Silk Road Seattle website.) http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/hhshu/hou_han_shu.html

The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢 A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE Quoted in zhuan 30 of the Sanguozhi Published in 429 CE. Draft English translation by John E. Hill June, 2004. (Silk Road Seattle website.) http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/weilue/weilue.html

j. Science and Technology:

Chemla, Karine and Guo Shuchun. Les Neuf Chapitres. Le Classique mathématique de la Chine ancienne et ses commentaires. Paris: Dunod, 2004. Rev. Tian Miao, TP 92 (2006):511-13.

Volkov, Alexeï. “Calculation of π in Ancient China: From Liu Hui to Zu Chongzhi,” Historia Scientiarum 4 (1994): 139-57.

Tseng, Lillian Lan-ying. “Representation and Appropriation: Rethinking the TLV Mirror in Han China,” EC 18 (2004): 163-215.

_____. “Divining from the Game Liubo: An Explanation of a Han Wooden Slip Excavated at Yinwan,” China Archaeology and Art Digest 4.4
(2002): 55-62.

Tsien, Tsuen-hsuin. Written on Bamboo and Silk: The Beginnings of Chinese Books and Inscriptions. 2nd edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004 [1962].

Wagner, Donald B. “Doubts Concerning the Attribution of Liu Hui’s Commentary on the Chiu-chang suan-shu,” Acta Orientalia (Copenhagen) 39 (1978): 199-212.

_____. “Liu Hui and Tsu Keng-chih on the Volume of a Sphere,” Chinese Science 3 (1978): 59-79.

_____. “An Ancient Chinese Derivation of the Volume of a Pyramid: Liu Hui, Third Century A.D.” Historia Mathematica 6 (1979): 164-188.

______. “A Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem by Liu Hui (Third Century A.D.)," Historia Mathematica 12 (1985):71-3.


k. Electronic Texts of Primary Sources:

Cao Cao shi quanji 曹操诗全集. Collected poems of Cao Cao in simplified characters.
http://www.cnread.net/cnread1/gdwx/c/caochao/000/001.htm

Hou Han shu 後漢書 electronic text. Scripta Sinica searchable text and commentary of Fan Ye’s Hou Han shu. Based on the Zhonghua shuju punctuated edition. May be accessed through the 二十五史 link at http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/ftmsw3 Simplified character versions available through the University of Oregon's e-asia on-line book project. http://e-asia.uoregon.edu/easia/chinarchive6.htm and at http://www.cnread.net/cnread1/lszl/f/fanye/hhs/index.html

Sanguo zhi 三國志 electronic text. Scripta Sinica searchable text and commentary of Chen Shou’s Sanguo zhi. Based on the Zhonghua shuju punctuated edition. May be accessed through the 二十五史 link at http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/ftmsw3 Simplified character version: http://www.cnread.net/cnread1/lszl/24s.html

Wang Chong 王充. Lun heng 論衡 electronic text. The 論衡校釋 may be accessed on the Institute of History and Philology website
http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/ftmsw3 Open 人文資料庫師生版1.1 and then click on 選自〔古籍三十四種〕.

Wu Yue chunqiu 吳越春秋 The 吳越春秋 may be accessed on the Institute of History and Philology website http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/ftmsw3 Open 人文資料庫師生版1.1 and then click on 選自〔古籍三十四種〕

四民月令 electronic text. Text of a critical edition of Cui Shi's 崔寔 (2nd C.) agricultural almanac, Monthly Ordinances of the Four Classes of People. Simplified characters. http://agri-history.net/books/siminyueling.htm

Wang Can 王粲 Deng lou fu 登楼赋 Simplified Character version. http://www.cnread.net/cnread1/gdwx/w/wangcan/000/001.htm

Zi zhi tong jian 資治通鋻 These are searchable electronic editions of Sima Guang's (1019-86) monumental chronological history of China from 403 B.C. to A.D. 959. This work serves as an important supplement and corroboration for the standard histories. Juan 39-78 deal with the Later Han and the Three Kingdoms. Juan 54-78 have been translated into English by Achilles Fang and Rafe de Crespigny. http://www.cnread.net/cnread1/lszl/s/simaguang/zztj/index.html




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