Old Believers in North America

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"Daniel (Alexandrow) of Erie." in >www.orthodoxwiki.org

Baranovskii, Vasilii. "Staroobriadtsy v SSHA." in Staroverie Baltii I Pol'she; Kratkii Istoricheskij I Biograficheskii Slovar', edited by Vasilii Baranovskii and Grigorii Potashenko. Vilnius: Aidai, 2005.

Beliajeff, Anton. Articles and Books Relating to the Old Orthodox in Languages other than Russian. Cahiers du Monde Russe et Sovietique 21, no.1 (1980): 109-121.

Levy, Mark. "Old Believers." (under "Russian Music" in the "East European Music" section.) Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: The United States and Canada, edited by Ellen Koskoff, 3: 916-917. New York: Garland, 1998.

Morris, Richard A. "Old Believers," in Encyclopedia of World Cultures, 272-275 Boston, Mass. G.K Hall 1991.

Morris, Richard A. "Russian Old Believers." American Immigrant Cultures: Builders of a Nation, 2: 743-748. Edited by David Levinson and Melvin Ember. New York: MacMillan, 1997.

Piepkorn, Arthur Carl. "The Russian Old Believers." in Profiles in Belief: the Rreligious Bodies of the United States and Canada, 1: 108-116. New York: Harper and Row, 1977.

Scheffel, David. "Chasovennye." in Modern Encyclopedia of Religions in Russia and the Soviet Union, 5:139-142. New York: Academic International Press, 1993.

Scheffel, David. "Old Believers." Canadian Encyclopedia. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com

Scheffel, David. "Old Believers." in Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples, edited by Paul Magocsi, 1020-1023. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999. (Also available online at http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/mcc/ecp/)

Shor, T.K. "Sofronov Pimen Maksimovich." in Staroverie Baltii I Pol'she; Kratkii Istoricheskij I Biograficheskii Slovar', edited by Vasilii Baranovskii and Grigorii Potashenko. Vilnius: Aidai, 2005.

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www.orthodoxwiki.org
A mid-length biography of Bishop Daniel of Erie, the ROCOR prelate who is bishop to the Erie, PA Old Ritualist Church of the Holy Nativity. Descendants of the bezpopovtsy Pomortsy who emigrated from Poland to Pennsylvania in the 1880s form the historic core of the congregation.

Baranovskii, Vasilii. "Staroobriadtsy v SSHA." in Staroverie Baltii I Pol'she; Kratkii Istoricheskij I Biograficheskii Slovar', edited by Vasilii Baranovskii and Grigorii Potashenko. Vilnius: Aidai, 2005.
The author presents a very brief outline of the history of the Pomortsy Old Believers in the United States,starting with the building of the first prayer hall in Pennsylvania in 1909 and ending with a list of present-day prayer halls, churches and elders in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Detroit.

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Beliajeff, Anton. Articles and Books Relating to the Old Orthodox in Languages other than Russian. Cahiers du Monde Russe et Sovietique 21, no.1 (1980): 109-121.
One of the few bibliographies in the field, this work lacks any system to designate works relating to Old Believers in North America. All appropriate items from Beliajeff are included in the present work.

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Levy, Mark. "Old Believers." (under "Russian Music" in the "East European Music" section.) Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: The United States and Canada, edited by Ellen Koskoff, 3: 916-917. New York: Garland, 1998.
Levy's brief description of Old Believer music in North America is based on the practices of the Oregon chasovennye. The bulk of his article is devoted to secular folksong, concentrating on context, function and performance. Song texts, and to a lesser degree song melodies, get briefer treatment. The discussion of liturgical music likewise emphasizes context, function and performance.

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Morris, Richard A. "Old Believers," in Encyclopedia of World Cultures, , 272-275 Boston, Mass. G.K Hall 1991
Presenting a well-organized overview of the Old Believers in North America, Morris provides a standard anthropological outline of Old Believer settlement patterns, language, kinship systems, political organization, arts, medicine, and so forth. The description relates mainly to the chasovennye concentrated in Oregon, Alaska and Canada.

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"Russian Old Believers." American Immigrant Cultures: Builders of a Nation, 2: 743-748. Edited by David Levinson and Melvin Ember. New York: MacMillan, 1997.
Focusing mainly on the Oregon Old Believer community, Morris touches on a handful of cultural aspects (schooling, language, social events, religious practices, clothing and appearance, inter-group contacts), throwing in a bit of history and rounding off with predictions for the future of Old Believer traditional culture.

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Piepkorn, Arthur Carl. "The Russian Old Believers." in Profiles in Belief: the Rreligious Bodies of the United States and Canada, 1: 108-116. New York: Harper and Row, 1977.
This excellent outline places three groups of Old Believers (the Pomortsi of the United States' east coast, the popovtsy of Alberta, Canada, and those who sojourned in Turkey) firmly into the broader context of Old Believer history from the time of the original schism. Peipkorn dwells mainly upon points of doctrine, practice and ecclesiastical organization. The chasovennye of the United States' west coast are mentioned briefly.

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Scheffel, David. "Chasovennye." in Modern Encyclopedia of Religions in Russia and the Soviet Union, 5:139-142. New York: Academic International Press, 1993.
Scheffell's 3-page article presents a convenient history of the "chasovennye" concord from its origins in Russia to its spread to North and South America in the late 20th century. Scheffel bases his description of contemporary chasovennye religious and social practices (public prayer, religious leadership, purity precautions) on North American examples. He sympathetically describes the concord's internal schism ( dating from 1983) resulting from the decision of a minority of North American chasovennye to accept priests consecrated through the Belokrinitsa hierarchy.

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Scheffel, David. "Old Believers."in Canadian Encyclopedia. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com
Brief (under 200 words) general encyclopedia article relating primarily to the Fairview/Hines Creek community of popovtsy Old Believers who settle in Alberta, Canada in the 1920s.

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Scheffel, David. "Old Believers." in Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples, edited by Paul Magocsi, 1020-1023. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999. (Also available online at http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/mcc/ecp/).
Scheffel neatly lays out the history of the Old Believer presence in Canada, starting with the 1908 consecration of a "bishop of Canada" by the Belia Krinitsa hierarchy (at a time when there were most likely no Old Believers in Canada). The story continues with the arrival of about 100 popovtsy Old Believers who joined other Russian refugees in emigrating to Canada under the sponsorship of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1920s, and concludes with the founding and slow growth of Chasovennye communities from the 1960s to the present. He notes throughout the pressure exerted by Canadian immigration authoritities to keep the stream of immigrants down to a trickle. He desribes economic and community life; kinship patterns, family structure, and the role of women; education, religion and relations with non-Old Believers.

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Shor, T.K. "Sofronov Pimen Maksimovich." in Staroverie Baltii I Pol'she; Kratkii Istoricheskij I Biograficheskii Slovar', edited by Vasilii Baranovskii and Grigorii Potashenko. Vilnius: Aidai, 2005.
Shor presents a short scholarly biography of the Estonian-born icon painter, describing his early studies under Frolov in Estonia, his travels, work and teaching in Russia and Europe, and his eventual arrival in the United States, where he continued painting and teaching until his death in 1973. The author lists many of the Old Believer and mainstream Orthodox churches where Sofronov's work can be seen and includes a substantial bibliography.

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