Citing Sources in Research Papers
This guide provides a general introduction to citing sources in the style established by the Modern Language Association (MLA). The examples below are some of the most frequently cited sources. For additional sources and guidelines, see the latest edition of the handbook:
- MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed. | REF KNIGHT LB 2369 .G53
Still using the 6th edition guidelines? See our guide here.
In-Text Citations: General Guidelines
Format of the citation:
- Provide the author's last name and the page number (Smith 10).
- But... do not repeat the author's name in your citation if you have included it in your text.
Location references in electronic sources:
- Do not include page numbers or location references in electronic documents.
Works Cited: General Guidelines
- Items are presented in alphabetical order by the first author's last name, or, if no author is listed, by the first element of the citation (generally the title).
- Use hanging indents.
- Identify the format of the item cited, e.g., Print or Web.
- Always consult your professor/department/publisher for specific requirements.
Sample List of Works Cited
- See also: MLA Citation Guide for Media Sources
|Citation Example||Type of Citation|
Bulliet, Richard W. "Twenty Years of Islamic Politics." Middle East Journal 53.2 (1999): 189-200. Print.
|Journal article (print)|
|Tator, Charles, James D. Carson, and Robert Cushman. "Hockey Injuries of the Spine in Canada, 1996-2006." CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal 162.6 (2000): 787-788. Academic Search Premier. Web. 11 Sept. 2008.||Journal article (from an online database)|
|Silverstein, Ken. "Millions for Viagra, Pennies for Diseases of the Poor: Research Money Goes to Profitable Lifestyle Drugs." Nation 19 July 1999: 13-19. Print.||Magazine article (print)|
|Swift, Richard. "FCC Ruling to Stifle Debate, Critics Say." Buffalo News. 13 June 2003. Web. 17 Feb. 2008.||Newspaper article (online)|
|Wyss, O'Neill. Fundamentals of the Stock Market. New York: McGraw, 2001. Print.||Book by a single author|
|Allison, Nancy, ed. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Body-Mind Disciplines. New York: Rosen, 1999. Print.||Edited book|
|Cassel, Jeris, and BethAnn Zambella. "Without a Net: Supporting Ourselves in a Tremulous Atmosphere." LOEX of the West: Teaching and Learning in a Climate of Constant Change. Ed. Thomas W. Leonhardt. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1996. 75-92. Print.||Chapter in an edited book|
|Allen, Anita L. "Privacy in Health Care." Encyclopedia of Bioethics. Ed. Stephen G. Post. 3rd ed. Vol. 4. New York: Macmillan-Thomson, 2004. Print.||Encyclopedia article, signed (print)|
|"Bhutan." Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2008. Web. 12 Sept. 2010.||Encyclopedia article, unsigned (online)|
|This By Them. This By Them. 2009. Web. 10 Sept. 2010. <http://www.thisbythem.com>.||Webpage|
|Tutton, Mark. "Designers Developing Virtual-Reality 'Cocoon'." CNN.com. Cable News Network. 11 Sept. 2007. Web. 17 Feb. 2011.||Article retrieved from website|
|"Richard Swift." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 28 April 2006. Web. 24 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Swift_(musician)>.||A page on a website|
|It's a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Perf. James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell. 1946. RKO, 2001. DVD.||DVD|
|Vice Presidential Candidate Gov. Sarah Palin (AK) Full Speech at the RNC. C-Span, 3 Sept. 2008. YouTube. Web. 10 Sept. 2008. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UCDxXJSucF4>.||Online video|
|United States. Dept. of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health. Washington: GPO, 2000. Print.||Government publication (print)|
|Harlow, Caroline Wolf. Hate Crime Reported by Victims and Police. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. Washington: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Nov. 2005. Web. 11 Sept. 2008. <http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/hcrvp.pdf>.||Government publication (online)|