University of Oregon

Citing Sources in Research Papers

Chicago Humanities Style

This guide is intended as a general introduction to citing sources using the bibliographic style established by the Chicago Manual of Style. An online version of the latest edition (16th, 2010) of The Chicago Manual of Style Online is now available. A print copy of the previous edition is to be found at REF KNIGHT Z253 .U69 2003. Note that this manual also includes essential information on research and writing, and manuscript preparation (e.g., margins, use of the passive voice). There are two Chicago Style formats: Humanities style (using footnotes) and Author-Date style (using in-text citations). This guide is for the Humanities style, favored by writers in history and art history. Chicago Style is mostly interchangeable with Turabian, a modified version of this style.

General Guidelines

  • In works with no bibliography, give full details at the first mention of a work cited; in a work with a bibliography, the note citations can be concise.
  • During your research, develop a consistent system for noting bibliographic information (author, title, date, publisher, source, page numbers) and keep it with your notes or copies of the source material you used.
  • Always consult your professor/department/publisher for specific requirements.
  • Include as much of the requested information as is available. The most important thing about a footnote or bibliographic entry is that the reader can use it to find the item being cited.

Footnote Guidelines

  • The first time you cite a source, the note should include publication information for that work as well as the page number on which the passage being cited may be found. For subsequent references to a source you have already cited, give only the author's last name, a short form of the title, and the page or pages cited. A short form of the title of a book is italicized; a short form of the title of an article is put in quotation marks. E.g:
    First: Peter Burchard, One Gallant Rush: Robert Gould Shaw and His Brave Black Regiment (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1965), 85.
    Subsequent: Burchard, One Gallant Rush, 31.
  • When one work by the same person is cited successively, Ibid. ("in the same place") may be used, with a page number.

Sample List of Entries

Chicago has a different format for footnotes and bibliographic entries. Below are formats for both types of citation, with "N" indicating an example for a footnote and "B" indicating an example of a bibliographic entry. For citation-styles of genres not included here, please see the Chicago Manual of Style.

N/B Citation Examples Type of Citation

William H. Rehnquist, The Supreme Court: A History (New York: Knopf, 2001), 204.


Rehnquist, William H. The Supreme Court: A History. New York: Knopf, 2001.


Walter J. Ong, "Oral Remembering and Narrative Structures," in Analyzing Discourse: Text and Talk, ed. Deborah Tannen (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1982), 275.

Chapter in an edited book

Ong, Walter J. "Oral Remembering and Narrative Structures." In Analyzing Discourse: Text and Talk, edited by Deborah Tannen, 271-279. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1982.


Lynn Hunt and others, The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures (Boston: Bedford, 2001), 541.

Book with four or more authors

Hunt, Lynn, Thomas R. Martin, Barbara H. Rosenwein, R. Po-chia Hsia, and Bonnie G. Smith. The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures. Boston: Bedford, 2001.


Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (New York: Random House, 1965), 11, quoted in Mark Skousen, The Making of Modern Economics: The Lives and the Ideas of the Great Thinkers (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2001), 15.

Source quoted in another source

Smith, Adam. The Wealth of Nations, 11. New York: Random House, 1965. Quoted in Mark Skousen, The Making of Modern Economics: The Lives and the Ideas of the Great Thinkers (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2001), 15.


James Clifford, "On Ethnographic Authority," Representations 1, no.2 (1983): 132.


Clifford, James. "On Ethnographic Authority." Representations 1, no. 2 (1983): 118-46.


Paul Banks and others, "Censorship: Lessons from the Catalyst," College Student Journal 35 (2001): 198.

Article with more than 3 authors, pagination by issue

Banks, Paul, et al. "Censorship: Lessons from the Catalyst." College Student Journal 35 (2001): 177-201.


Linda Belau, "Trauma and the Material Signifier," Postmodern Culture 11, no. 2 (2001): par. 6, (November 11, 2003).

Article retrieved from online journal

Belau, Linda. "Trauma and the Material Signifier." Postmodern Culture 11, no. 2 (2001). (November 11, 2003).


Boston Globe, "Renewable Energy Rules," August 11, 2003, sec. A.

Article in a newspaper, unsigned

Boston Globe. "Renewable Energy Rules." August 11, 2003, sec. A.


Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed., s.v. "Wales."

Entry in an encyclopedia or dictionary

Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed. S.v. "Wales."
[Note: "s.v." is short for the Latin phrase sub verbo, meaning "under the word"]


The Secret of Roan Inish, DVD, directed by John Sayles (1993; Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Video, 2000).

Film or Video

The Secret of Roan Inish. DVD. Directed by John Sayles. 1993; Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Video, 2000.


Kevin Rayburn, The 1920s,

(The Chicago Manual of Style does not advise including the date you accessed a Web source, but you may provide an access date after the URL if the cited material is time-sensitive)

Rayburn, Kevin. The 1920s.


U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States: Diplomatic Papers, 1943 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1965), 562.

Government Document

U.S. Department of State. Foreign Relations of the United States: Diplomatic Papers, 1943. Washington, DC: GPO, 1965.


Created by jstaiger on Jun 18, 2012 Last updated Aug 24, 2015
University of Oregon Libraries
1501 Kincaid Street Eugene, OR
T: (541) 346-3053
F: (541) 346-3485
Make a Gift