[an error occurred while processing this directive] Burgess collection illuminated letter

Burgess Collection

Burgess Collection MS 48

Marcus Tullius Cicero, Orationes
Pseudo-Cicero, In C. Sallustium Invectiva and Oratio ad Romanos
Pseudo-Sallust, In M. Tullium Ciceronem Invectiva

Latin, 1 historiated initial and 33 large illuminated initials

[Italy, 15th century]

Scanned Images of MS 48:  
BindingBorderInitialsScriptWatermark
top frontf. 1r (top)f. 47vf. 47vCrest
bottom frontf. 1r (bottom)

I. Material
II. Construction
III. Preparation of the Page 
IV. Text
V.
Decoration 
VI.
Illustration
VII. Binding
VIII.
Additions
IX.
Provenance

Description

I. Material

The manuscript contains 252 leaves of thin vellum and two flyleaves of paper (one front and one back). Catchwords have been written on the lower right of the verso of the last leaf of each quire. Folio size varies from 32.8 x 23.3 to 33 x 23.7 cm.

II. Construction

GATHERINGS FOLIOS CONTENTS
110-25101-250Marcus Tullius Cicero, Orationes;
262251-252 Pseudo-Cicero, In C. Sallustium InvectivaandOratio ad Romanos;
Pseudo-Sallust, In M. Tullium Ciceronem Invectiva;

III. Preparation of the Page

Vertical lines on each side of the writing space form a double frame that extends the length of the page. In the first third of the manuscript, the lines of the frame and the ruling were drawn in brown ink. In the final two-thirds of the manuscript, they were drawn with hard point. This instrument was simply a pointed object (perhaps a stylus) that made an indentation when one drew a line on a leaf of parchment or paper. This instrument was widely used until the eleventh century when it was joined by an instrument known as metal point. (Brown, British Library Guide to Writing and Scripts, p. 66)  The text is written in single columns of 36 lines. The writing space varies from an area of 21.9 x 13.4 cm. to an area of 21.9 x 13.5 cm. The lines of the text and lines of the double frame are 0.6 to 0.7 cm apart.

The paper flyleaves both contain watermarks of an unidentified crest. However, the flyleaves were not part of the original manuscript. They were added when the manuscript was rebound.

IV. Text

A. Contents
Marcus Tullis Cicero, Orationes; Pseudo-Cicero, In C. Sallustium Invectiva and Oratio ad Romanos; Pseudo-Sallust, In M. Tullium Ciceronem Invectiva

1. De Lege Manilia Oratio ad Quirites (or De Imperio Cn. Pompeii ad Quirites Oratio), ff. 1r-7v
Inc. Quanquam mihi semper frequens...
Ex. ...atque meis omnibus commodis et rationibus præferre oportere.

2. Pro A. Licinio Archia Poeta Oratio, ff. 7v-11r
Inc. Si quid est in me ingenii...
Ex. ...qui iudicium exercet certo scio.

3. In L. Catilinam Oratio, In Senatu Habita, ff. 11r-14v
Inc. Quousque tandem abutere...
Ex. ...æternis suppliciis uiuos mortuosque mactabis.

4. In L. Catilinam Oratio Secunda, Habita Ad Populum, ff. 14v-17v
Inc. Tandem aliquando Quirites Catilinam furentem...
Ex. ...a perditissimorum ciuium nefario scelere defendant.

5. In L. Catilinam Oratio Tertia, Habita Ad Populum, ff. 17v-20v
Inc. Rempublicam Quirites uitamque omnium uestrum...
Ex. ...atque ut in perpetua pace esse possitis prouidebo Quirites.

6. In L. Catilinam Oratio Quarta, Habita In Senatu, ff. 21r-23v
Inc. Video patres Conscripti in me omnium ora...
Ex. ...quoad uiuet defendere et per se ipsum præstare possit.

7. In M. Tullium Ciceronem Invectiva (Pseudo-Sallust), ff. 24r-24v
Inc. Grauiter et iniquo animo maledicta tua paterer...
Ex. ...neque in hac neque in illa parte fidem habens.

8. In C. Sallustium Invectiva (Pseudo-Cicero), ff. 24v-26v
Inc. Ea demum magna uoluptas est...
Ex. ...sed ut ea dicam siqua ego honeste effari possum.

9. Pro T. Annio Milone Oratio, ff. 26v-36v
Inc. Etsi uereor iudices ne turpe sit...
Ex. ...qui in iudicibus legendis optimum et sapientissimum quenque delegit.

10. Pro Cn. Plancio Oratio, ff. 36v-47v
Inc. Cum propter egregiam et singularem...
Ex. ...quas pro me sæpe et multum profudistis.

11. Pro P. Sylla Oratio, ff. 47v-56v
Inc. Maxime uellem Iudices ut...
Ex. ...a uobis crudelitatis famam repellamus.

12. Pro A. Cecinna Oratio, ff. 56v-67v
Inc. Si quantum in agro locisque...
Ex. ...quid ratio interdicti de iure admoneant ut iudicetis.

13. Pro C. Rabirio Posthumo Oratio, ff. 67v-72r
Inc. Siquis est iudices qui...
Ex. ...nisi unius amici opes subuenissent.

14. Pro C. Rabirio Perduellionis Oratio, ff. 72r-75v
Inc. Etsi Quirites non est...
Ex. ...quod in cliuo capitolino improborum ciuium.

15. Pro Q. Roscio Comoedo Oratio, ff. 75v-80v
Inc. Malitiam naturæ crederetur...
Ex. ...hoc est Roscio debebat.

16. Pro Q. Ligario Oratio, ff. 81r-84r
Inc. Novum crimen C. Cæsar...
Ex. ...præsentibus his omnibus te daturum.

17. In P. Vatinium Testem Oratio, ff. 84v-89r
Inc. Si tua tantummodo Vatini...
Ex. ...nequid tibi auctoritatis meæ dimminutum esse uideatur.

18. Oratio ad Romanos (Pseudo-Cicero), ff. 89r-92r
Inc. Si quando inimicorum impetum...
Ex. ...uestra uirtute conseruetis.

19. Oratio Post Reditum Ad Quirites Habita, ff. 92r-95r
Inc. Quod precatus a loue maximo...
Ex. ...cunctis suffragiis indicauit.

20. Oratio Post reditum in Senatu Habita, ff. 95r-99r
Inc. Si patres conscripti pro uestris immortalibus...
Ex. ...uirtutem et fidem nunquam amiserim.

21. De Provinciis Consularibus Oratio, ff. 99r-104r
Inc. Siquis uestrum patres conscripti expectat...
Ex. ...in gratiam non dubitarint redire.

22. Pro M. Caelio Oratio, ff. 104r-111v
Inc. Siquis iudices forte nunc adsit...
Ex. ...quanta res sit commissa uobis.

23. De Lege Agraria Oratio Tertia, ff. 111v-112v
Inc. Commodivs fecissent tribuni plebis...
Ex. ...uobis flagitantibus conuocauerunt disserant.

24. In L. Calpurnium Pisonem Oratio, ff. 112v-123v
Inc. Iam vides bellua...
Ex. ...quam si paulisper sordidatum uiderem.

25. De Lege Agraria Oratio Prima, ff. 123v-125v
Inc. Quæ res aperte petebatur...
Ex. ...reipublicæ restituta esse uideatur.

26. De Lege Agrarian Oratio Secunda, ff. 126r-136r
Inc. Est hoc in more positum...
Ex. ...plurimum uidisse uideantur.

27. Pro M. Fonteio Oratio, ff. 136v-140r
Inc. Hoc prætore oppressam esse...
Ex. ...gallorum ualuisse uideantur.

28. Pro M. Marcello Oratio, ff. 140r-143r
Inc. Divtvrni silenti patres conscripti...
Ex. ...magnus hoc tuo facto cumulus accesserit.

29. Pro Rege Deiotaro ad C. Caesarem Oratio, ff. 143r-146v
Inc. Cum in omnibus causis...
Ex. ...alterum conseruare clementiæ tuæ.

30. Pro A. Cluentio Habito Oratio, ff. 146v-167r
Inc. Animaduerte iudices omnem...
Ex. ...esse inuidiæ locum in iudiciis ueritati.

31. Pro L. Flacco Oratio, ff. 167r-177r
Inc. Cum in maximis periculis...
Ex. ...uel hominis cuasa rei publicæ reseruate.

32. Pro P. Quinctio Oratio, ff. 177r-185v
Inc. Qvæ res in civitate...
Ex. ...eadem usque ad rogum prosequatur.

33. De Domo Sua ad Pontifices Oratio, ff. 185v-201r
Inc. Cum multa diuinitus Potifices...
Ex. ...in sedibus meis collocetis.

34. Pro P. Sextio Oratio, ff. 201r-214r
Inc. Siqvis antea mirabatvr qvid esset...
Ex. ...per quos me recuperauistis.

35. Pro Cornelio Balbo Oratio, ff. 214v-221r
Inc. Si avctoritates patronorvm...
Ex. ...sed de beneficio Cn. Pompeii iudicaturos.

36. Pro Sexto Roscio Amerino Oratio, ff. 221r-234r
Inc. Credo ego vos ivdices mirari quid sit...
Ex. ...sensum omnem humanitatis ex animis amittimus.

37. Pro L. Murena Oratio, ff. 234v-245v
Inc. Qvæ deprecatvs svm...
Ex. ...futurum esse promittam et spondeam.

38. De Haruspicum Responsio Oratio, ff. 245r-252v
Inc. Hesterno die patres conscripti...
Ex. ...sunt intra nos iræ discordiæque placandæ.

39. Table of Contents, f. 252v
Inc. M. Tvllii Ciceronis orationes...
Ex. De Responsis Arvspicivm...XXXVIII.

Marcus Tullius Cicero was born in Italy in 106 B.C.E. Having been educated in Rome and Greece, he became an eminent statesman, scholar, lawyer and writer. His brilliant political career included the positions of quaestor (75 B.C.E.) and consul (63 B.C.E.). He was assassinated in 43 B.C.E. (Encyclopedia Britannica, vol. 3, pp. 313-15)

In ancient Rome, oratory was one of the most important facets of political life. Public addresses were one of the only ways of disseminating political ideas. In addition, politicians could only succeed if they won the favor of the people with their oratorical ability. During his lifetime, Cicero was one of the most well-known and effective orators in Rome. Fifty-seven of his orations survive in full. Of these, 14 were the Philippics (directed at Marc Antony) and six were directed against Verres. Of the remaining 37 orations, 35 are included in MS 48. All of these were written between 81 and 45 B.C.E. In addition, three spurious works are included in MS 48. Two of these are supposed invectives by Cicero and Sallust against each other. The third is a supposed speech that Cicero gave on the day before his exile. All three of these works are not accepted in the canon of true Cicero and Sallust works. (Greenough and Kittredge, pp. xxxiv-xlv)

B. Script

The text is written in the tradition of the Humanistic System of scripts. This system is believed to have begun in Florence just prior to 1400. The development of this system was a conscious reformation of scripts with the aesthetic intentions of reviving clarity and legibility in book production. The system comprises three different types of script: Humanistic Book Script, Humanistic Cursive Book Script and Humanistic Cursive. All of these scripts were influenced by examples of Caroline Minuscule dating from the late twelfth century. MS 48 is written in Humanistic Book Script, the most formal of the three scripts. (Brown, Western Historical Scripts, pp. 126-7, 130-3)

Because one of the goals of the humanistic system was to restore clarity and legibility to scripts, there was also a strong desire to reduce the need for abbreviation. Nonetheless, certain abbreviations remained, as is the case with MS 48. These include abbreviations for terminal letters as well as the common abbreviations for m, que, qui and quod.

MS 48 was written in brown ink by one scribe. Joined letters are frequent throughout. Fusion of letters is rare. Common features of the script include the application of serifs to the descenders of p, q and tall s. Ligatures of s - t and c - t and the Humanistic feature of the two-compartment g are common throughout. Et is usually written out, but the ampersand (&) is also used. The e caudata is frequently used for æ. This was "part of a Humanistic reform of spelling" that reintroduced diphthongs. (Brown, Western Historical Scripts, p. 130)

V. Decoration

A. Initials
MS 48 contains one historiated initial and 33 illuminated initials. The first oration begins with a historiated initial containing a painting of Cicero holding a book. The gold initial Q spans 9.5 lines and contains a background of white vines surrounded by a blue outline. The spaces between the vines have been painted green, red and blue.

Thirty-three of the remaining 37 orations begin with illuminated intials (each spanning about five to six lines). Each initial is painted gold on a white vine background surrounded by a blue outline. The vines extend into the margin. The spaces between the vines have been painted green, red and blue.

B. Paragraph Signs

This manuscript contains no paragraph signs.

C. Line Endings

The rubrication in MS 48 contains line endings in the form of two or three dots (in the shape of a colon or a triangle, respectively) and an elongated dash. As with the rubrication, the line endings are written in red.

D. Border Decorations

This manuscript contains one fully illuminated Renaissance border (f. 1r). Italian Renaissance manuscripts such as MS 48 were famous for their splendor. Illuminators of this period usually painted quite elaborate initials and borders on the opening folios of manuscripts. White vines were often woven throughout the initials and borders, along with putti, insects, birds, butterflies and coats-of-arms within wreaths. (De Hamel, pp. 248-9)

The border on folio 1r of MS 48 is predominated by white vines surrounded by a blue outline. The spaces between the vines have been painted green, red and blue. The white vines often terminate in flowers of various colors. Putti, birds and a butterfly can be found throughout the vines. A gold medallion, which may have contained the Coat of Arms of the orignal owner, is located in center of the lower border. At top left, the illuminated initial Q contains a painting of Cicero. Gold discs with brown spiked spindles surround all sides of the border. Such discs and spindles are predominantly Italian decorative devices that were prevalent in the late fourteenth to late fifteenth centuries. (See, for example, De Hamel, plates 224, 229, 231)

VI. Illustration

This manuscript contains no illustrations other than those noted in the sections concerning initials and line endings.

VII. Binding

There are no remnants of the original binding. MS 48 was rebound in vellum over paste boards. The manuscript is no longer attached to this binding. "M. Tullii Ciceronis Opera Cod. Misc." is written on the spine in brown ink. The manuscript contains gilt and gauffered edges that were probably produced when it was originally bound.

VIII. Additions to Manuscript

A. Inside upper cover, upper left corner: asssorted notes, including "W" and "1037;" other notes illegible (in pencil).

B. Recto of front flyleaf, upper right corner: "d. [fugli] 251" (in brown ink) and "Burgess xMs. 48" (in pencil).

C. Recto of front flyleaf, center: "8-7" (in pencil, crossed out with brown ink), "6-7" (in pencil) and "Codice XLII" (in brown ink).

D. Inside lower cover, lower left corner: "43" (in pencil).

E. Recto of every leaf, upper right corner: page numbers (in pencil).

IX. Provenance

Before his death in 1928, MS 48 belonged to Edward Perry Warren, an antiquarian book and sculpture collector. Mr. Warren was an American who spent most of his life in England. In 1937, Goodspeed's Bookshop, Boston, Massachusetts, acquired the manuscript from the estate of Mr. Warren.

MS 48 was purchased by Julia Burgess from Goodspeed's Bookshop in 1939. It was part of the collection of manuscripts given to (and partly purchased by) the University of Oregon Libraries, Eugene, Oregon. This particular manuscript was donated by Julia Burgess in memory of her mother Emma Burgess. (JB, box 4, folder 38; see also Faye and Bond, pp. 432)

Bibliography

Unpublished Source

Julia Burgess Papers.  Special Collections and University Archives, University of Oregon Libraries.  UO Coll. 209, 9 boxes and 9 separate volumes. [Referred to above as JB.]

Published Sources

[an error occurred while processing this directive]