[an error occurred while processing this directive] Burgess collection illuminated letter

Burgess Collection

Burgess Collection MS 35

John Halgren of Abbeville, Sermones de Tempore (fragment)

Latin, 45 small, plainly illuminated initials

[Northern France or England, first half of 13th century]

Scanned Images of MS 35:

BindingInitialScript
top frontf. 157rf. 157r
bottom front

I. Material
II. Construction
III. Preparation of the Page 
IV. Text
V.
Decoration 
VI.
Illustration
VII. Binding
VIII.
Additions
IX.
Provenance

Description

I. Material

The manuscript contains 61 leaves of thick, suede-like vellum with little hair/flesh contrast and four flyleaves of paper (two front and two back). Most leaves are stained or soiled from use. Many leaves contain holes and tears. 28.8 x 21.9 cm.

II. Construction

GATHERINGS FOLIOS CONTENTS
187137-141, 143-144John Halgren of Abbeville, Sermones de Tempore (fragment)
198 - 218145-168
2214169-172, 194-199, 135, 173, 175-176
238 - 248177-192

MS 35 is a fragment of a manuscript that probably contained 33-34 quires of eight leaves each. MS 35 contains all or part of quires 17 to 25 of the complete manuscript. The sixth leaf of the 18th quire (f. 142) and the sixth leaf of the 22nd quire (f. 174) have been cut out of the manuscript. In addition, the second to seventh leaves of the 25th quire (ff. 194-199) have been inserted between the fourth and fifth leaves of the 22nd quire. Also, what appears to have been the seventh leaf of the 17th quire (f. 135) has been inserted directly following the other leaves that have been inserted into the 22nd quire. Quire numbers were written by the scribe on the lower center of the verso of the final leaf of every quire.

III. Preparation of the Page

Vertical lines on each side of the writing space form a single frame that extends the length of the page. The lines of the frame and the ruling were drawn by an instrument known as lead point, or plummet. This instrument was one of the writing tools known as metal point. The mark made by the instrument varied in appearance according to the type of metal used. A silver-gray mark was made by a type of lead alloy (often silver and lead). Sometimes the metal was contained in a holder. This was the precursor to the modern pencil. This type of instrument began to be widely used in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. (Brown, Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts, pp. 78, 86; E.M. Thompson, p. 43) The writing space varies from an area of 21.1 x 15 cm. to an area of 21.3 x 15.2 cm. The text is written in double columns of 34 lines. The column widths vary from 6.9 to 7.1 cm. The columns are 1.1 to 1.2 cm apart. The lines of the text are 0.5 to 0.8 cm apart.

IV. Text

A. Contents
John Halgren of Abbeville, Sermones de Tempore (fragment)

1. [Sermon 93 (fragment), f. 135]
Inc. [...de iudicio quia non...]
Ex. [...quorum primum pertinet...]

2. Sermon 94 (fragment), f. 137r
Inc. [Miser igitur homo qui hoc omnis portat...]
Ex. ...electorum mereamur perfrui consortio...

3. Sermon 95, ff. 137r-137v
Inc. Estote factores uerbi...Dominica ista quinta post pascha precedenti respondet...
Ex. ...immaculatus erit.

4. Sermon 96, ff. 137v-139r
Inc. Estote factores uerbi...Inuitat nos apostolus non solum ad audiendum sed etiam ad faciendum uerbum...
Ex. ...quae supra mundum sunt premia recipias.

5. Sermon 97, ff. 139r-139v
Inc. Amen amen dico uobis et cetera si quid petieritis...Prouocat dominus discipulos ad petendum...
Ex. ...credimus quia a deo existi.

6. Sermon 98 (fragment), f. 139v-141v
Inc. Amen, amen dico uobis si quis petieritis...Ut fiduciam impetrandi prebeat dominus qui ad petendum inuitat...
Ex. [...regina corruit et in...]

7. Sermon 100 (fragment), ff. 143r-144r
Inc. [...prodito fraus fallacia periuria...]
Ex. ...per dona beatitudines assequamur.

8. Sermon 101, ff. 144r-144v
Inc. Cum uenerit paraclitus quem ego mittam...In hac euangelii lectione quid spiritus sanctus...
Ex. ...preuisa patienter tollare possetis.

9. Sermon 102, ff. 144v-146v
Inc. Cum uenerit paraclitus quem ego mittam...In hac euangelii lectione nobis ostenditur quid facturus sit spiritus sanctus...
Ex. ...expectatio nostra consummetur in re ipsa.

10. Sermon 103, ff. 146v-147r
Inc. Cum complerentur dies Pentecostes...In hac dominica de aduentu spiritus sancti agitur in epistola...
Ex. ...uariis linguis magnalia dei.

11. Sermon 104, ff. 147r-149r
Inc. Apperuerunt illis dispertite lingue...Adueniens hodie spiritus in discipulos Iesu Christi...
Ex. ...et feruor vere caritatis in nostris mentibus accendatur.

12. Sermon 105, ff. 149r-149v
Inc. Si quis diliget me...In hac euangelii lectione quid in aduentu suo spiritus sanctus efficiat...
Ex. ...usque ad mortem mortem autem crucis.

13. Sermon 106, ff. 149v-152r
Inc. Si quis diliget me...Obseruantia namque diuini sermonis fructum meretur in contemplatione deitatis...
Ex. ...ad incorruptibilem gloriam in celo stabiliat.

14. Sermon 108, ff. 152r-153r
Inc. Deus caritas est...Haec epistola in prima dominica post Pentecosten legitur...
Ex. ...cuius precepto est obtemperandum.

15. Sermon 109, ff. 153r-154v
Inc. In hoc apparuit caritas dei...Multiplex in hoc loco diuine dilectionis datur indicium primo quia misit secundo quia filium...
Ex. ...si esurierit inimicus tuus ciba illum.

16. Sermon 110, ff. 154v-156r
Inc. Homo quidam erat diues et induebatur...Iste quasi ignotus et a domino reprobatus non designatur...
Ex. ...populus meus.

17. Sermon 111, ff. 156r-157r
Inc. Et erat quidam mendicus...De quattuor hoc loco diues reprehenditur primo quia in felicitate sua timidus non fuit...
Ex. ...pro sabbato pectoris sabbatum eternitatis.

18. Sermon 112, ff. 157r-158r
Inc. Nolite mirari si uos odit mundus...Respicite filii nationes hominum...Bene ista dominica precedenti respondet...
Ex. ...inter medium uenditionis et emptionis angustiabitur peccatis.

19. Sermon 113, ff. 158r-159r
Inc. Nolite mirari si odit uos mundus...Confortat Iohannes eos quibus scripsit et in eis nos corroborat...
Ex. ...in correctione seueritatem mansuetudo temperet.

20. Sermon 114, ff. 159r-160v
Inc. Homo quidam fecit cenam magnam...Ex hoc euangelio potest elici sermo...
Ex. ...quod per intelligentiam acceperunt.

21. Sermon 115, ff. 160v-163r
Inc. Humiliamini...Tertia dominica respondet secunde hoc modo...
Ex. ...consolationem timore sublato solidat.

22. Sermon 116, ff. 163r-165r
Inc. Quis ex uobis homo qui habet centum oues...Dominus in triplici parabola iudicium nobis prestat...
Ex. ...ante tribunal iudicis amen.

23. Sermon 117, ff. 165r-166r
Inc. Existimo quod non sunt condigne...Tertie dominice sic respondet quarta...
Ex. ...iterum emptum glorie perceptione.

24. Sermon 118, ff. 166r-166v
Inc. Non sunt condigne...Non sunt condigne passiones quia per afflictionem penitentie deuitamus intolerabile supplicium...
Ex. ...hiis omnibus potest corrumpi.

25. Sermon 119, ff. 166v-167r
Inc. Estote misericordes...Inuitamur hoc loco opera misericordie...
Ex. ...pauperibus impenduntur.

26. Sermon 120, ff. 167r-168v
Inc. Estote misericordes...inuitamur hoc loco ad misericordiam...
Ex. ...id non ex comparatione alterius quem uituperat.

27. Sermon 121, ff. 168v-169r
Inc. Unanimes omnes...Perturbant ecclesiam heretici impugnantes fidem scismatici impugnantes caritatem...
Ex. ...non rapiemini.

28. Sermon 122, ff. 169r-170v
Inc. Omnes unanimes...Inuitat ad unitatem apostolus...
Ex. ...in tribulationibus nec consumi.

29. Sermon 123, ff. 170v- 171r
Inc. Cum turbe irruerunt...Turbe ex deuotione audiendi uerbum domini plurimum commendantur...
Ex. ...noli timere et cetera.

30. Sermon 124, ff. 171v-172v
Inc. Cum turbe irruerunt...Ex hoc euangelio sic potest elici sermo moralis...
Ex. ...ex hoc eris homines capiens.

31. Sermon 125, ff. 172v- 173v
Inc. Quicumque baptizati sumus...Haec dominica sexta quinte respondet...
Ex. ...uirtutibus que non sunt a nobis sed a Christo Iesu domino nostro.

32. Sermon 126, ff. 173v-176r
Inc. Quicumque baptizati sumus...Baptismus est ablutio et tinctio siue tinctura...
Ex. ...menbra uestra arma iusticie deo id ad gloriam dei.

33. Sermon 127, ff. 176r-177r
Inc. Audistis quia dictum est antiquis...Docuit nos apostolus in epistola sanctificare dominum...
Ex. ...digna persoluetur pena.

34. Sermon 128, ff. 177r-178r
Inc. Audistis quia dictum est antiquis...Tria nobis in hoc euangelio dissuadentur ira contumelia homicidium...
Ex. ...comedet te serpens.

35. Sermon 129, ff. 178r-178v
Inc. Humanum dico...In hac dominica septima de uocatione gentium agitur...
Ex. ...ibi nisi gratia.

36. Sermon 130, ff. 178v-180v
Inc. Humanum dico...Inuitat nos apostolus ut sicut uniuersitatem membrorum exibuimus peccato...
Ex. ...non cessabit exigere tributum mundane sollicitudinis.

37. Sermon 131, ff. 180v-181v
Inc. Misereor super turbam...Multiplex hoc loco Christus utriusque sue nature exibuit argumentum...
Ex. ...et terroribus suppliciorum.

38. Sermon 132, ff. 181v-182v
Inc. Et precepit turbe discumbere...Legitur dominus duas fecisse refectiones...
Ex. ...gloria quae dabitur triumphatori.

39. Sermon 133, ff. 182v-183v
Inc. Debitores sumus...Haec dominica octaua septime respondet. Nam in illa actum est de uocatione gentium...
Ex. ...et ita simil cum Christo conregnabimus.

40. Sermon 134, ff. 183v-184v
Inc. Fratres debitores sumus...Debitores sumus dicit apostolus sed tacet cui...
Ex. ...et omnia uirtutem ossa dispergentur.

41. Sermon 135, ff. 184v-185v
Inc. Si secundum carnem uixeritis...Carnalis affectio duplicem importat mortem...
Ex. ...compatimur ut glorificemur et conregnemus.

42. Sermon 136, ff. 185v-186v
Inc. Attendite a falsis prophetis...Instruit ecclesia in hoc loco simplicitatem gentium ad fidem...
Ex. ...negat dominum.

43. Sermon 137, ff. 186v-188r
Inc. Attendite a falsis prophetis...Si iubemur uitare ypocritas falsi habitus et doctrine pretendentes ymaginem...
Ex. ...uas suum possidere in sanctificatione et honore.

44. Sermon 138, ff. 188r-189v
Inc. Non simus concupiscentes...Agitur autem in hac dominica de misericordia domini...
Ex. ...Christi pendentis in ligno.

45. Sermon 139, ff. 189v-190v
Inc. Homo quidam erat diues qui habebat uillicum...In hoc euangelio dei nobis misericordia ostenditur...
Ex. ...date igitur et dabitur uobis.

46. Sermon 140, ff. 190v-192v
Inc. Homo quidam erat diues qui habebat uillicum...Diues iste deus est cuius uillicus est quilibet fidelis...
Ex. ...et sic fiat equalitas.

47. Sermon 141, ff. 192v-[193r]
Inc. Scitis quoniam cum gentes essetis...Respondet haec dominica decima precedenti...
Ex. [...gratias autem...]

48. Sermon 142, ff. [193r]-195r
Inc. [...incendium quia suggitur...]
Ex. ...quod uidetur habere auferetur ab eo.

49. Sermon 143, ff. 195r-197r
Inc. Cum appropinquaret dominus Ierusalem...Dominus secundum hystoriam euangelicam plangit reprobos...
Ex. ...ex eius dono gratuito procedere recognoscunt.

50. Sermon 144, ff. 197r-199r
Inc. Notum uobis facio euangelium...In hac dominica undecima de humilitate agitur...
Ex. ...et fructus uester maneat.

51. Sermon 145, ff. 199r-[...]
Inc. Dicebat Iesus ad quosdam...Agitur in hac dominica de humilitate...
Ex. [...eterna debemus quia autem non ...]

MS 35 was previously identified as the Sermones de Tempore of St. Bernard of Clairvaux. However, it is quite clear that this was a false identification. A previous Special Collections librarian at the University of Oregon Libraries (James Fox) correctly identified MS 35 as a fragment of the Sermones de Tempore of John Halgren of Abbeville.

John Halgren was born to noble parents around 1180 at Abbeville in northern France. He studied theology at Paris where he became master regent by 1217. He left Paris in 1218 to become dean of the see of Amiens. In 1225 John was appointed archbishop of Besançon. He was nominated to become Patriarch of Constantinople in 1226 but he declined the position. Pope Gregory IX appointed him cardinal-bishop of Santa Sabina in 1227. John also performed various buisiness as papal legate in Spain from 1228-9. He continued to undertake tasks for the pope until his death in 1237.

In addition to his official business, John also found time to write. He devoted much time to writing various sermons. Of interest here are his Sunday sermons (Sermones de Tempore) on the Epistles and Gospels. According to the list published in Schneyer, John wrote 196 Sunday sermons. MS 35 appears to be a fragment of a manuscript that included all or most of John's 196 Sunday sermons. MS 35 includes all or part of sermons 93 to 145 (excluding sermons 99 and 107). John probably completed these sermons during the first quarter of the thirteenth century. It is interesting to note that the copy of the sermons contained in MS 35 is nearly contemporary with the time the author was writing. (Cole, pp. 150-1; Macy; Murray; Schneyer, pp. 510-523)

It must be noted that the sermons have been listed in the contents section above according to the numbers ascribed to them by Schneyer. In addition, the contents are listed according to the foliation of the original manuscript. That is, f. 135 is listed first, although it has been placed between ff. 172 and 173. Likewise, ff. 194-199 have been listed last, although they have also been placed between ff. 172 and 173. Because ff. 136, 142, 174 and 193 are missing, parts of various sermons are not included in MS 35. In cases where actual incipits and explicits of such sermons are not present, incipits and explicits of the sections that are present have been provided. However, these have been placed in brackets.

B. Script

The text was written in the tradition of the Protogothic System of scripts. Generally, this system corresponds with the Romanesque period of art and architecture. Protogothic script encompasses the transition from Caroline Minuscule to Gothic Minuscule. It was prevalent in areas under Norman and Angevin rule from the end of the eleventh century to the mid-thirteenth century. The system comprised three different types of script: Continental Protogothic Book Script, English Protogothic Book Script and Protogothic Documentary Script. (Brown, Western Historical Scripts, pp. 72-9) MS 35 appears to have been written in Continental Protogothic Book Script. Michelle Brown has noted that the application of feet and serifs "remains the best criterion for distinguishing between English and Continental examples [of Protogothic script]." English Protogothic Book Script contains "formally applied feet and serifs," while Continental Protogothic Book Script contains simple feet "which generally consist of an upwards turn of the pen." (Brown, Western Historical Scripts, p. 73) The scribe of MS 35 did apply some formal feet and serifs to minims, ascenders and descenders. However, most of the feet are simply upwards turns of the pen.

MS 35 was written by one scribe. Dark brown ink was used throughout. Rubrication in red occurs before most sermons. Occasionally, capital letters have been outlined in red ink. Fusion of letters is rare, but joined letters are prevalent throughout. Other prevalent features include: dotted y, dash with dot above and comma below for est, n with a line over it for non and uncrossed tironian et sign.

V. Decoration

A. Initials
45 small, plainly illuminated initials begin most of the sermons. Each initial spans about two lines. They are painted in blue with red pen-work flourishes and red with blue pen-work flourishes. The flourishes extend into the margins. Elfrida Saunders has noted that such initials are a regular feature of Gothic Illumination during the thirteenth century. (Saunders, vol. I, p. 51)

B. Paragraph Signs

This manuscript contains no paragraph signs.

C. Line Endings

Line endings appear throughout MS 35 to fill the space after rubrication before each sermon. Each line ending is comprised of a row of contiguous small red circles. Each row varies in length according to the amount of space available. Saunders has noted that such colored pen-work line endings became regular features of thirteenth-century manuscript illumination. (Saunders, vol. I, p. 51)

D. Border Decorations

This manuscript contains no border decorations.

VI. Illustration

This manuscript contains no illustrations other than those noted in the section concerning initials.

VII. Binding

There are no remnants of the original binding. MS 35 was rebound in modern vellum over paste or pulp boards. "The Gospels - MS. XIII Century" has been stamped on the spine.

VIII. Additions to Manuscript

A. Inside upper cover, upper left corner: "85.55/$80.00" (in pencil).

B. Inside upper cover, upper left corner: "35" (circled, in pencil).

C. Recto of first front flyleaf, upper right corner: "Burgess Ms. 35" (in pencil).

D. Verso of second front flyleaf, top: "XIIth Century (second part). Executed in England. Bernardus (S.) de Chiaravalle (1091-1153). Canonized 1174. Sermones de Tempore. 61 leaves. This manuscript, although fragmentary, is however very interesting, being almost contemporary with the author." (in pencil).

E. Recto of every leaf, upper right corner: folio numbers (in pencil).

F. Recto of every leaf, lower center: folio numbers (in brown ink, probably contemporary).

G. Recto of every leaf, directly under left column: folio numbers (in pencil).

IX. Provenance

Edward Sandford Burgess purchased MS 35 from Giuseppe Martini on 19 January 1915. It was part of the collection of manuscripts inherited by Julia Burgess in 1935, and subsequently given to (and partly purchased by) the University of Oregon Libraries. (JB, box 6, folders 11, 14; see also Faye and Bond, pp. 431)

Bibliography

Unpublished Source

Julia Burgess Papers.  Special Collections and University Archives, University of Oregon Libraries.  UO Coll. 209, 9 boxes and 9 separate volumes. [Referred to above as JB.]

Published Sources

http://library.uoregon.edu/ec/exhibits/burgess/ms35.html
Last revision: 10/30/06 by N. Helmer
Created by Ian Rush for Special Collections & University Archives, University of Oregon Libraries
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